Vikings

Exploration and expansion routes of Norsemen
Pendant of silver, Viking age, Sweden.
Pendant of silver, Viking age, Sweden.

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate",[1] Danish and Bokmål: vikinger; Swedish and Nynorsk: vikingar; Icelandic: víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.[2][3][4] The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age. This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, Estonia, the British Isles, France, Kievan Rus' and Sicily.[5]

Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, and characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times also extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. Following extended phases of (primarily sea- or river-borne) exploration, expansion and settlement, Viking (Norse) communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus[6], Ukraine[7] and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America. This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while simultaneously introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions.

Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term frequently applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often strongly differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century; this developed and became widely propagated during the 19th-century Viking revival.[8][9] Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are typically based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy. These representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.

Etymology

A Norwegian fjord

One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, inlet, small bay".[10] Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken (or Víkin in Old Norse), meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, and it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called 'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir (Modern Norwegian: vikvær), 'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine (Old Scandinavian víkingr) and ignore the feminine (Old Norse víking), which is a serious problem because the masculine is easily derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa.[11][12][13] The form also occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking (Sm 10) was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking (Toki the viking), presumably because of his activities as a viking.[14] The Gårdstånga Stone (DR 330) uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu" (These men where well known i viking),[15] referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings. The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, who was killed when "i viking".[16] In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad. The Bro Stone (U 617) was risen in memory of Assur who is said to have protected the land from vikings (SaR vaR vikinga vorðr með Gæiti).[17][18] There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age.

Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f. 'sea mile', originally 'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan, 'to recede'.[19][20][21][22] This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan, 'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja (ýkva, víkva) 'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages.[23] Linguistically, this theory is better attested,[23] and the term most likely predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before (in the western branch).[24][25] In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking (as in the phrase fara í víking) may originally have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr (the masculine) would then originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas.[26]

In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, Widsith, which probably dates from the 9th century. In Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders. As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as a name for any people or culture in general. The word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts. One theory made by the Icelander Örnolfur Kristjansson is that the key to the origins of the word is "wicinga cynn" in Widsith, referring to the people or the race living in Jórvík (York, in the ninth century under control by Norsemen), Jór-Wicings. The word Viking was introduced into Modern English during the 18th-century Viking revival, at which point it acquired romanticised heroic overtones of "barbarian warrior" or noble savage. During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer to not only seaborne raiders from Scandinavia and other places settled by them (like Iceland and the Faroe Islands), but also any member of the culture that produced said raiders during the period from the late 8th to the mid-11th centuries, or more loosely from about 700 to as late as about 1100. As an adjective, the word is used to refer to ideas, phenomena, or artefacts connected with those people and their cultural life, producing expressions like Viking age, Viking culture, Viking art, Viking religion, Viking ship and so on.[27]

Other names

Europe in 814. Roslagen is located along the coast of the northern tip of the pink area marked "Swedes and Goths".

The Vikings were known as Ascomanni ("ashmen") by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats,[28] Dubgail and Finngail ( "dark and fair foreigners") by the Irish,[29] Lochlannach ("lake person") by the Gaels[30] and Dene (Dane) by the Anglo-Saxons.[31]

The Slavs, the Arabs and the Byzantines knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs,[32] probably derived from various uses of rōþs-, "related to rowing", or derived from the area of Roslagen in east-central Sweden, where most of the Vikings who visited the Slavic lands came from. Some archaeologists and historians of today believe that these Scandinavian settlements in the Slavic lands played a significant role in the formation of the Kievan Rus' federation, and hence the names and early states of Russia and Belarus.[33][34][35] The modern day name for Sweden in several neighbouring countries is possibly derived from rōþs-, Rootsi in Estonian and Ruotsi in Finnish.

The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians (Russian: варяги, from Old Norse Væringjar, meaning 'sworn men', from vàr- "confidence, vow of fealty", related to Old English wær "agreement, treaty, promise", Old High German wara "faithfulness"[32]). Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard.

The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were generally known as Danes or heathen and the Irish knew them as pagans or gentiles.[36]

Anglo-Scandinavian is an academic term referring to the people, and archaeological and historical periods during the 8th to 13th centuries in which there was migration to—and occupation of—the British Isles by Scandinavian peoples generally known in English as Vikings. It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon. Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Wikings
Alemannisch: Wikinger
አማርኛ: ቫይኪንግ
Ænglisc: Wīcingas
العربية: فايكنج
aragonés: Vikingo
asturianu: Viquingu
azərbaycanca: Vikinqlər
تۆرکجه: وایکینقلر
বাংলা: ভাইকিং
Bân-lâm-gú: Viking-lâng
башҡортса: Викингтар
беларуская: Вікінгі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вікінгі
български: Викинги
bosanski: Vikinzi
brezhoneg: Vikinged
буряад: Викингүүд
català: Víkings
Чӑвашла: Викингсем
čeština: Vikingové
Cymraeg: Llychlynwyr
dansk: Vikinger
davvisámegiella: Vikiŋŋat
Deutsch: Wikinger
eesti: Viikingid
Ελληνικά: Βίκινγκ
español: Vikingo
Esperanto: Vikingoj
euskara: Bikingo
Fiji Hindi: Viking
føroyskt: Víkingur
français: Vikings
Frysk: Wytsingen
furlan: Vichincs
Gaeilge: Lochlannaigh
Gàidhlig: Na Lochlannaich
galego: Viquingo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Viking-ngìn
한국어: 바이킹
հայերեն: Վիկինգներ
हिन्दी: वाइकिंग
hrvatski: Vikinzi
Ido: Vikingo
Ilokano: Viking
Bahasa Indonesia: Viking
interlingua: Viking
íslenska: Víkingar
italiano: Vichinghi
עברית: ויקינגים
Basa Jawa: Viking
къарачай-малкъар: Викингле
ქართული: ვიკინგები
қазақша: Викингтер
Kiswahili: Waviking
kurdî: Vîkîng
Кыргызча: Викингдер
кырык мары: Викингвлӓ
Latina: Viccingi
latviešu: Vikingi
lietuvių: Vikingai
Ligure: Vichinghi
Lingua Franca Nova: Vicing
magyar: Vikingek
македонски: Викинзи
മലയാളം: വൈക്കിങ്
Māori: Vikings
მარგალური: ვიკინგეფი
مصرى: فايكينج
مازِرونی: وایکینگ
Bahasa Melayu: Viking
Mirandés: Bikings
монгол: Викингчүүд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဗိုက်ကင်း
Nederlands: Vikingen
Nedersaksies: Vikings
नेपाल भाषा: भाइकिङ
нохчийн: Викингаш
Nordfriisk: Wikinger
norsk: Viking
norsk nynorsk: Vikingar
occitan: Viking
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vikinglar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵਾਈਕਿੰਗ
پنجابی: وائی کنگ
Plattdüütsch: Wikinger
polski: Wikingowie
português: Vikings
română: Vikingi
rumantsch: Vikings
русиньскый: Вікінґове
русский: Викинги
Scots: Vikings
shqip: Vikingët
sicilianu: Vichinghi
Simple English: Vikings
slovenčina: Vikingovia
slovenščina: Vikingi
српски / srpski: Викинзи
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vikinzi
Basa Sunda: Viking
suomi: Viikingit
svenska: Viking
Tagalog: Viking
தமிழ்: வைக்கிங்
татарча/tatarça: Викинглар
తెలుగు: వైకింగ్స్
Türkçe: Vikingler
Türkmençe: Wikingler
українська: Вікінги
اردو: وائی کنگ
Vahcuengh: Vunz Veizging
vèneto: Vichinghi
vepsän kel’: Vikingad
Tiếng Việt: Người Viking
Võro: Viikingiq
West-Vlams: Viking
Winaray: Viking
吴语: 维京人
ייִדיש: וויקינג
粵語: 維京人
žemaitėška: Vėkingā
中文: 維京人