Vanadium

Vanadium,  23V
Vanadium etched.jpg
General properties
Pronunciationm/ (NAY-dee-əm)
Appearanceblue-silver-grey metal
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)50.9415(1)[1]
Vanadium in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson


V

Nb
titaniumvanadiumchromium
Atomic number (Z)23
Groupgroup 5
Periodperiod 4
Element category  transition metal
Blockd-block
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 11, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2183 K ​(1910 °C, ​3470 °F)
Boiling point3680 K ​(3407 °C, ​6165 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.0 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.5 g/cm3
Heat of fusion21.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization444 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.89 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)210122892523281431873679
Atomic properties
Oxidation states5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −3 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.63
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 650.9 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1414 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2830 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius153±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for vanadium
Speed of sound thin rod4560 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion8.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity30.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity197 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+255.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[2]
Young's modulus128 GPa
Shear modulus47 GPa
Bulk modulus160 GPa
Poisson ratio0.37
Mohs hardness6.7
Vickers hardness628–640 MPa
Brinell hardness600–742 MPa
CAS Number7440-62-2
History
DiscoveryAndrés Manuel del Río (1801)
First isolationNils Gabriel Sefström (1830)
Named byNils Gabriel Sefström (1830)
Main isotopes of vanadium
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
48Vsyn16 dβ+48Ti
49Vsyn330 dε49Ti
50V0.25%1.5×1017 yε50Ti
β50Cr
51V99.75%stable
| references | in Wikidata

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery-grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation.

Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís (Freyja). Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element.

Vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. It is produced in China and Russia from steel smelter slag; other countries produce it either from magnetite directly, flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. The most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.

Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly as a toxin. The oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. Particularly in the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae.

History

Vanadium was discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río, a Spanish-Mexican mineralogist, in 1801. Del Río extracted the element from a sample of Mexican "brown lead" ore, later named vanadinite. He found that its salts exhibit a wide variety of colors, and as a result he named the element panchromium (Greek: παγχρώμιο "all colors"). Later, Del Río renamed the element erythronium (Greek: ερυθρός "red") because most of the salts turned red upon heating. In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils, backed by del Río's friend Baron Alexander von Humboldt, incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium. Del Río accepted Collet-Descotils' statement and retracted his claim.[3]

In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores. Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work.[4] Sefström chose a name beginning with V, which had not been assigned to any element yet. He called the element vanadium after Old Norse Vanadís (another name for the Norse Vanr goddess Freyja, whose attributes include beauty and fertility), because of the many beautifully colored chemical compounds it produces.[4] In 1831, the geologist George William Featherstonhaugh suggested that vanadium should be renamed "rionium" after del Río, but this suggestion was not followed.[5]

The Model T made use of vanadium steel in its chassis.

The isolation of vanadium metal proved difficult. In 1831, Berzelius reported the production of the metal, but Henry Enfield Roscoe showed that Berzelius had in fact produced the nitride, vanadium nitride (VN). Roscoe eventually produced the metal in 1867 by reduction of vanadium(II) chloride, VCl2, with hydrogen.[6] In 1927, pure vanadium was produced by reducing vanadium pentoxide with calcium.[7]

The first large-scale industrial use of vanadium was in the steel alloy chassis of the Ford Model T, inspired by French race cars. Vanadium steel allowed for reduced weight while simultaneously increasing tensile strength (ca. 1905).[8]

German chemist Martin Henze discovered vanadium in the hemovanadin proteins found in blood cells (or coelomic cells) of Ascidiacea (sea squirts) in 1911.[9][10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Vanadium
አማርኛ: ቫናዲየም
العربية: فاناديوم
aragonés: Vanadio
armãneashti: Vanadiu
asturianu: Vanadiu
azərbaycanca: Vanadium
Bân-lâm-gú: Vanadium
башҡортса: Ванадий
беларуская: Ванадый
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ванад
भोजपुरी: वैनेडियम
български: Ванадий
བོད་ཡིག: ཝེ་ནི་ཌིམ།
bosanski: Vanadij
brezhoneg: Vanadiom
català: Vanadi
Чӑвашла: Ванади
Cebuano: Vanadyo
čeština: Vanad
corsu: Vanadiu
Cymraeg: Fanadiwm
dansk: Vanadium
Deutsch: Vanadium
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވެނޭޑިއަމް
eesti: Vanaadium
Ελληνικά: Βανάδιο
español: Vanadio
Esperanto: Vanado
euskara: Banadio
فارسی: وانادیم
Fiji Hindi: Vanadium
français: Vanadium
furlan: Vanadi
Gaeilge: Vanaidiam
Gaelg: Vanaadjum
Gàidhlig: Bhanadium
galego: Vanadio
ગુજરાતી: વેનેડિયમ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vanadium
хальмг: Ванад
한국어: 바나듐
Hawaiʻi: Vanadium
Հայերեն: Վանադիում
हिन्दी: वनेडियम
hrvatski: Vanadij
Ido: Vanado
Bahasa Indonesia: Vanadium
interlingua: Vanadium
íslenska: Vanadín
italiano: Vanadio
עברית: ונדיום
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವನಾಡಿಯಮ್
ქართული: ვანადიუმი
қазақша: Ванадий
Kiswahili: Vanadi
коми: Ванадий
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vanadyòm
kurdî: Vanadyûm
Кыргызча: Ванадий
кырык мары: Ванадий
Latina: Vanadium
latviešu: Vanādijs
Lëtzebuergesch: Vanadium
lietuvių: Vanadis
Ligure: Vanaddio
Limburgs: Vanadium
Livvinkarjala: Vanadium
la .lojban.: jinmrvanadi
lumbaart: Vanadio
magyar: Vanádium
македонски: Ванадиум
മലയാളം: വനേഡിയം
Bahasa Melayu: Vanadium
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Vanadium
монгол: Ванади
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဗနေဒီယမ်
Nederlands: Vanadium
नेपाली: वनेडियम
नेपाल भाषा: भ्यानडियम
日本語: バナジウム
Nordfriisk: Vanadium
norsk: Vanadium
norsk nynorsk: Vanadium
occitan: Vanadi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vanadiy
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵੈਨੇਡੀਅਮ
پنجابی: ونیڈیم
Piemontèis: Vanadi
Plattdüütsch: Vanadium
polski: Wanad
português: Vanádio
română: Vanadiu
Runa Simi: Wanadyu
русский: Ванадий
संस्कृतम्: वनडियम
Scots: Vanadium
Seeltersk: Vanadium
shqip: Vanadiumi
sicilianu: Vanadiu
Simple English: Vanadium
slovenčina: Vanád
slovenščina: Vanadij
Soomaaliga: Fanadhiyaam
کوردی: ڤانادیۆم
српски / srpski: Ванадијум
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vanadijum
Basa Sunda: Vanadium
suomi: Vanadiini
svenska: Vanadin
Tagalog: Banadyo
தமிழ்: வனேடியம்
татарча/tatarça: Ванадий
తెలుగు: వెనేడియం
тоҷикӣ: Ванадий
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏩᏁᏗᎥᎻ
Türkçe: Vanadyum
українська: Ванадій
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ۋانادىي
vepsän kel’: Vanadii
Tiếng Việt: Vanadi
文言:
Winaray: Vanadyo
吴语:
ייִדיש: וואנאדיום
Yorùbá: Banadiomu
粵語:
中文:
Kabɩyɛ: Fanadɩyɔm