Valledupar

Valledupar
City and municipality
View of the Downtown's 9th Avenue
View of the Downtown's 9th Avenue
Flag of Valledupar
Flag
Official seal of Valledupar
Seal
Nickname(s): 
City of the Holy Kings of Valledupar
Location in the Department of Cesar. Municipality (dark gray), City (red).
Location in the Department of Cesar. Municipality (dark gray), City (red).
Valledupar is located in Colombia
Valledupar
Valledupar
Location within Colombia
Coordinates: 10°29′N 73°15′W / 10°29′N 73°15′W / 10.483; -73.250
*Valledupar metropolitan area is yet to be determined.

Valledupar (Spanish pronunciation: [baʝeðuˈpaɾ]) is a city and municipality in northeastern Colombia. It is the capital of Cesar Department. Its name, Valle de Upar (Valley of Upar), was established in honor of the Amerindian cacique who ruled the valley; Cacique Upar. The city lies between the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá to the borders of the Guatapurí and Cesar rivers.[2]

Valledupar is an important agricultural, cattle raising, coal mining and agro-industrial center for the region between the Departments of Cesar and southern municipalities of La Guajira Department, formerly known as the Padilla Province. Valledupar is notable as the cradle of vallenato music, representative of the Colombian culture. The city hosts the Vallenato Legend Festival.

During the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, the city suffered during the Colombian Armed Conflict, with numerous kidnappings,[3] thousands of people forced out[4] and failure to control crime.

Valledupar has one of Colombia's most modern maximum security prisons.[5]

Geography

The municipality of Valledupar is located southeast of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 10 degrees, 29 minutes, of north latitude and 73 degrees 15 minutes longitude to the west of the Greenwich Meridian. Valledupar's average temperature is 28 °C. Because of its high altitude but proximity to the equator, this municipality possesses a variety of environments, from warm heat to perpetual snow. The most important heights are the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta's peaks; the Codazzi, El Guardian, the Ojeda and La Reina. Many rivers descend from its snowy peaks and lagoons; the Ariguani, Ariguanicito, Badillo, Calderas, Cesar, Curiba, Donachui, Garupal, Guatapuri, which borders the city of Valledupar; and the Mariangola.

The Municipality of Valledupar is bordered on the north with the municipalities of Riohacha and San Juan del Cesar in the department of La Guajira. To the south are the municipalities of El Paso and Los Robles La Paz in the department of Cesar; to the east are the municipalities of Villanueva and Urumita, also in the Department of La Guajira; and to the west are the municipalities Fundacion and Aracataca, in the department of Magdalena.

The municipality has an area of about 4,977.96 km², from which 72,660 km² pertain to the Arhuacos Indian Reserve, 399.52 km² to the Kogui and Wiwa Indian Reserve, and 425.60 km² to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park.

Fauna and flora

The municipality is home to numerous endemic species, mostly living in the ecosystem of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania del Perijá mountains, one of the most biodiverse places in the World. The most recently discovered species of bees was found in rural areas of Valledupar and named Stelis vallenata in tribute to the local Vallenato music.

The city's symbolic bird is the Turpial. Other notable birds that inhabit the region are the parrots that flock the fruit trees year round.

During the colonial period, Spaniards introduced invasive European fauna into the region, such as dogs, cats, rats, mice, cattle, horses, mules, goats y gallineta africana, doves, among others. Spaniards also introduced numerous species of flora from all over the World into the region, most notably mango trees, which have become the most popular tree in the city and municipality. However, the symbolic trees of the city are two types of Yellow Tabebuia, colloquially called "Cañaguate" and Puy. These trees cover the region with their notorious yellow blossom flowers during the dry season.

The entities in charge of protecting and controlling the fauna and flora in the region are the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the local descentralized agency Corpocesar, under the Governor of the Cesar Department and Environmental Police of the Colombian National Police. Other non-profit organizations collaborate with these entities.

Climate

Climate in the municipality of Valledupar is determined by altitude. Half of the region is mountainous and the rest is plains in between the mountain ranges of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serrania del Perijá. Throughout the year, the region has two dry seasons and two rainy seasons affected by El Niño and La Niña phenomena. The peaks of the mountainous region gets snow during the rainy season and much cooler days and depending on the weather, the entire regions gets hit lightly by hailstorms and thunderstorms. The regions is slightly affected by the annual Caribbean hurricane season. The levels of rivers and bodies of water increase in the rainy season, and vegetation grows green and bushy. During the dry season, vegetations dries and turns mostly yellow, while bodies of water decrease in volume.

In 2013, Valledupar was classified in average as the hottest place in Colombia, according to the Colombian Meteorological Institute, IDEAM.

Climate data for Valledupar, Guaymaral 50m (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.5
(103.1)
39.8
(103.6)
42.0
(107.6)
39.8
(103.6)
39.4
(102.9)
40.8
(105.4)
39.8
(103.6)
40.2
(104.4)
39.0
(102.2)
38.2
(100.8)
38.0
(100.4)
39.8
(103.6)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 36.4
(97.5)
36.5
(97.7)
36.6
(97.9)
36.5
(97.7)
35.5
(95.9)
35.4
(95.7)
35.7
(96.3)
35.5
(95.9)
34.6
(94.3)
33.8
(92.8)
34.1
(93.4)
35.1
(95.2)
35.3
(95.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 30.4
(86.7)
30.5
(86.9)
30.3
(86.5)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
29.8
(85.6)
29.9
(85.8)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
28.8
(83.8)
29.0
(84.2)
29.7
(85.5)
29.8
(85.6)
Average low °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.2
(75.6)
24.2
(75.6)
24.2
(75.6)
24.2
(75.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
23.9
(75)
Record low °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
19.8
(67.6)
20.6
(69.1)
18.2
(64.8)
18.0
(64.4)
20.4
(68.7)
17.2
(63)
18.0
(64.4)
17.2
(63)
18.8
(65.8)
18.4
(65.1)
17.2
(63)
16.8
(62.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.8
(0.268)
28.5
(1.122)
78.1
(3.075)
125.9
(4.957)
181.3
(7.138)
119.1
(4.689)
114.4
(4.504)
140.7
(5.539)
154.8
(6.094)
169.7
(6.681)
148.9
(5.862)
40.0
(1.575)
1,295.3
(50.996)
Average precipitation days 1 2 5 9 11 9 9 12 12 12 9 3 94
Average relative humidity (%) 63 62 63 63 66 65 65 66 68 70 69 65 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 269.7 234.5 238.7 201.0 189.1 186.0 207.7 210.8 180.0 179.8 201.0 244.9 2,543.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.7 8.3 7.7 6.7 6.1 6.2 6.7 6.8 6.0 5.8 6.7 7.9 7.0
Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales[6][7][8]
Other Languages
العربية: فاليدوبار
azərbaycanca: Valyedupar
Bân-lâm-gú: Valledupar
български: Валедупар
brezhoneg: Valledupar
català: Valledupar
čeština: Valledupar
Deutsch: Valledupar
español: Valledupar
Esperanto: Valledupar
euskara: Valledupar
فارسی: واییدوپار
français: Valledupar
Gàidhlig: Valledupar
galego: Valledupar
한국어: 바예두파르
Bahasa Indonesia: Valledupar
italiano: Valledupar
ქართული: ვალიედუპარი
lietuvių: Valjeduparas
Bahasa Melayu: Valledupar
Nederlands: Valledupar
norsk: Valledupar
پنجابی: ویلیدوپار
polski: Valledupar
português: Valledupar
Runa Simi: Valledupar
русский: Вальедупар
suomi: Valledupar
svenska: Valledupar
Tagalog: Valledupar
Türkçe: Valledupar
Tiếng Việt: Valledupar
Volapük: Valledupar
Winaray: Valledupar
žemaitėška: Valjedopars