Uzbekistan

Republic of Uzbekistan
Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi  (Uzbek)
Республика Узбекистан  (Russian)
Anthem: "Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"
(English: "State Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan")
Location of  Uzbekistan  (green)
Location of  Uzbekistan  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Tashkent
41°19′N 69°16′E / 41°19′N 69°16′E / 41.317; 69.267
Official languagesUzbek,
Russian (de-facto)[2][3][4]
Ethnic groups
[5]
Religion
DemonymUzbek
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic under an authoritarian system[6]
• President
Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Abdulla Aripov
LegislatureSupreme Assembly
Senate
Legislative Chamber
Formation
• Emirate of Bukhara proclaimed
1785
30 April 1920
• Uzbek SSR established after national delimitation
27 October 1924
• Declared independence from the Soviet Union
31 August 1991
• Formally recognised
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
8 December 1992
Area
• Total
448,978 km2 (173,351 sq mi) (56th)
• Water (%)
4.9
Population
• 2017 estimate
32,979,000[7][8] (42nd)
• Density
70.5/km2 (182.6/sq mi) (132nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$238.997 billion[9] (62)
• Per capita
$7,350[9] (125th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$40.259 billion[9] (69th)
• Per capita
$1,238[9] (130th)
Gini (2013)Positive decrease 36.7[10][11]
medium · 88th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.710[12]
high · 105th
CurrencyUzbek som (UZS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (UZT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+998
ISO 3166 codeUZ
Internet TLD.uz

Uzbekistan (US: n/ (About this sound listen), UK: n/, Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston, pronounced [ozbekiˈstɒn], Russian: Узбекистан), officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi/Ўзбекистон Республикаси, Russian: Республика Узбекистан), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest.

What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian-speaking region of Transoxiana. The first recorded settlers were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians, who founded kingdoms in Khwarezm (8th–6th centuries BC), Bactria (8th–6th centuries BC), Sogdia (8th–6th centuries BC), Fergana (3rd century BC – 6th century AD), and Margiana (3rd century BC – 6th century AD). The area was incorporated into the Persian Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled mostly by Persian dynasties. The Muslim conquest in the 7th century converted the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road. The local Khwarezmian dynasty, and Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became increasingly dominated by Turkic peoples. The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur, also known as one of Genghis Khan's grandchildren, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand. The area was conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand, and Emirate of Bukhara. It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991.

Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to its storied history and strategic location. Its first major official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population. Russian has widespread use as a governmental language; it is the most widely taught second language. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%). Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims.[13] Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, OSCE, UN, and the SCO. While officially a democratic republic,[14] by 2008 non-governmental human rights organizations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".[15]

Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, started a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above. He stated he intended to abolish cotton slavery, systematic use of child labour,[16] exit visas, to introduce a tax reform, create four new free economic zones, as well as amnestied some political prisoners. The relations with neighboring countries of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan drastically improved.[17][18][19][20] However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, and restrictions on movements of 'freed' prisoners.[21]

The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017, the country's currency became fully convertible in the market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. The country also operates the largest open-pit gold mine in the world. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia.[22] Renewable energy constitutes more than 23% of the country's energy sector, with hydroelectricity and solar energy having 21.4% and 2% respectively.

Geography

Map of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres (172,700 sq mi). It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population.[23] Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area and the 2nd largest by population.[24]

Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, and longitudes 56° and 74° E. It stretches 1,425 kilometres (885 mi) from west to east and 930 kilometres (580 mi) from north to south. Bordering Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north and northwest, Turkmenistan to the southwest, Tajikistan to the southeast, and Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Uzbekistan is one of the largest Central Asian states and the only Central Asian state to border all the other four. Uzbekistan also shares a short border (less than 150 km or 93 mi) with Afghanistan to the south.

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world (that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countries), the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, none of its rivers lead to the sea. Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast desert (Kyzyl Kum) and mountains.

Uzbekistan map of Köppen climate classification

The highest point in Uzbekistan is the Khazret Sultan, at 4,643 metres (15,233 ft) above sea level, in the southern part of the Gissar Range in Surkhandarya Province, on the border with Tajikistan, just northwest of Dushanbe (formerly called Peak of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party).[24]

The climate in Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually (100–200 millimetres, or 3.9–7.9 inches). The average summer high temperature tends to be 40 °C (104 °F), while the average winter low temperature is around −23 °C (−9 °F).[25]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Узбэчыстэн
адыгабзэ: Узбекистан
Afrikaans: Oesbekistan
Alemannisch: Usbekistan
አማርኛ: ኡዝቤኪስታን
Ænglisc: Usbecastan
العربية: أوزبكستان
aragonés: Uzbekistán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܘܙܒܩܣܛܐܢ
arpetan: Ozbèquistan
অসমীয়া: উজবেকিস্তান
asturianu: Uzbequistán
azərbaycanca: Özbəkistan
تۆرکجه: اؤزبکیستان
Bân-lâm-gú: Uzbekistan
башҡортса: Үзбәкстан
беларуская: Узбекістан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Узбэкістан
Bikol Central: Usbekistan
български: Узбекистан
Boarisch: Usbekistan
bosanski: Uzbekistan
brezhoneg: Ouzbekistan
буряад: Узбекистан
català: Uzbekistan
Чӑвашла: Ӳспекстан
Cebuano: Uzbekistan
čeština: Uzbekistán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Uzbekistán
chiShona: Uzbekistan
chiTumbuka: Uzbekistan
Cymraeg: Wsbecistan
dansk: Usbekistan
davvisámegiella: Usbekistan
Deutsch: Usbekistan
ދިވެހިބަސް: އުޒްބެކިސްތާން
dolnoserbski: Usbekistan
eesti: Usbekistan
Ελληνικά: Ουζμπεκιστάν
español: Uzbekistán
Esperanto: Uzbekio
estremeñu: Uzbequistán
euskara: Uzbekistan
eʋegbe: Uzbekistan
فارسی: ازبکستان
Fiji Hindi: Uzbekistan
føroyskt: Usbekistan
français: Ouzbékistan
Gagauz: Özbekistan
Gàidhlig: Usbagastàn
galego: Uzbequistán
Gĩkũyũ: Uzbekistan
ગુજરાતી: ઉઝબેકિસ્તાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: उझबेकिस्तान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Uzbekistan
хальмг: Узбек Орн
Hausa: Uzbekistan
հայերեն: Ուզբեկստան
hornjoserbsce: Uzbekistan
hrvatski: Uzbekistan
Ilokano: Uzbekistan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: উজবেকিস্তান
Bahasa Indonesia: Uzbekistan
interlingua: Uzbekistan
Interlingue: Uzbekistan
íslenska: Úsbekistan
italiano: Uzbekistan
עברית: אוזבקיסטן
Basa Jawa: Uzbèkistan
Kapampangan: Uzbekistan
къарачай-малкъар: Ёзбекистан
ქართული: უზბეკეთი
kaszëbsczi: Ùzbekistan
қазақша: Өзбекстан
kernowek: Pow Ousbek
Kinyarwanda: Uzubekisitani
Kiswahili: Uzbekistan
Kongo: Uzbekistan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ouzbekistan
kurdî: Ûzbêkistan
Кыргызча: Өзбекстан
Ladino: Uzbekistan
لۊری شومالی: اوزبکستان
Latina: Uzbecia
latviešu: Uzbekistāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Usbekistan
lietuvių: Uzbekija
Ligure: Uzbekistan
Limburgs: Oezbekistan
lingála: Uzbekistáni
Livvinkarjala: Uzbekistuanu
lumbaart: Uzbekistan
македонски: Узбекистан
Malagasy: Ozbekistana
Māori: Uhipeketāne
მარგალური: უზბეკეთი
مازِرونی: اوزبکستون
Bahasa Melayu: Uzbekistan
Baso Minangkabau: Uzbekistan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Uzbekistan
мокшень: Узбекистан
монгол: Узбек улс
Nāhuatl: Uzbequistan
Dorerin Naoero: Uzbekistan
Nederlands: Oezbekistan
नेपाल भाषा: उज्बेकिस्तान
нохчийн: Узбекистан
Nordfriisk: Usbekistaan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Uzbekistaan
norsk: Usbekistan
norsk nynorsk: Usbekistan
Novial: Uzbekistan
occitan: Ozbequistan
олык марий: Узбекистан
Oromoo: Uzbeekistaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oʻzbekiston
پنجابی: ازبکستان
Papiamentu: Uzbekistan
Patois: Uzbekistan
Piemontèis: Uzbekistan
Plattdüütsch: Usbekistan
polski: Uzbekistan
português: Uzbequistão
Qaraqalpaqsha: O'zbekistan
qırımtatarca: Özbekistan
română: Uzbekistan
Runa Simi: Usbiksuyu
русиньскый: Узбекістан
русский: Узбекистан
саха тыла: Узбекистаан
संस्कृतम्: उजबेकिस्थान
Scots: Uzbekistan
sicilianu: Uzbekistan
Simple English: Uzbekistan
SiSwati: IZubekhi
slovenčina: Uzbekistan
slovenščina: Uzbekistan
ślůnski: Uzbekistůn
Soomaaliga: Usbekistan
српски / srpski: Узбекистан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Uzbekistan
Basa Sunda: Uzbékistan
suomi: Uzbekistan
svenska: Uzbekistan
Tagalog: Uzbekistan
Taqbaylit: Uzbakistan
татарча/tatarça: Үзбәкстан
тоҷикӣ: Ӯзбекистон
Türkçe: Özbekistan
Türkmençe: Özbegistan
тыва дыл: Узбекистан
удмурт: Узбекистан
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Uzbekistan
українська: Узбекистан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئۆزبېكىستان
Vahcuengh: Uzbekistan
vèneto: Uzbekistan
vepsän kel’: Uzbekistan
Tiếng Việt: Uzbekistan
Volapük: Lusbekän
Võro: Usbekistan
文言: 烏茲別克
Winaray: Usbekistan
粵語: 烏茲別克
Zazaki: Ozbekıstan
Zeêuws: Oezbekistan
žemaitėška: Ozbėkistans
Kabɩyɛ: Uzibekistanɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Uzbecistan