Uruguay sent a team of 12 athletes to compete in the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from August 8 to August 24, 2008.
- Note–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only
- Q = Qualified for the next round
- q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target
- NR = National record
- N/A = Round not applicable for the event
- Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round
||Did not advance