University of Pennsylvania

University of Pennsylvania
Arms of the University of Pennsylvania
Latin: Universitas Pennsylvaniensis
MottoLeges sine moribus vanae (Latin)
Motto in English
Laws without morals are useless
TypePrivate research university
EstablishedNovember 14, 1740; 278 years ago (1740-11-14)[note 1]
FounderBenjamin Franklin
EndowmentIncreaseUS$13.8 billion[1] (2018)
Budget$10.2 billion[2] (2019)
PresidentAmy Gutmann
ProvostWendell Pritchett
Board ChairmanDavid L. Cohen[3]
Academic staff
4,638 faculty members[4]
Administrative staff
2,489[4]
Students21,599 (2017)[4]
Undergraduates10,496 (2017)[4]
Postgraduates11,013 (2017)[4]
Location, ,
US
CampusUrban, 1,085 acres (4.39 km2) total:
299 acres (1.21 km2), University City campus;
694 acres (2.81 km2), New Bolton Center;
92 acres (0.37 km2), Morris Arboretum
ColorsRed and Blue[5]
         
AthleticsNCAA Division I
Ivy League
Philadelphia Big 5
City 6
NicknameQuakers
AffiliationsAAU
COFHE
NAICU
568 Group
upenn.edu
University of Pennsylvania wordmark.svg

The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City section of West Philadelphia. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution.[6] It has been ranked as among the top universities in the US and the world by numerous major education publications.[7][8][9][10][11]

Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology, though his proposed curriculum was never adopted. The university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin family's own coat of arms.[12] Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities, concentrating multiple "faculties" (e.g., theology, classics, medicine) into one institution.[13] It was also home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881) and the first "student union" building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896)[14] were founded at Penn. With an endowment of $13.8 billion (2018), Penn has the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States.[15] All of Penn's schools exhibit very high research activity.[16] In fiscal year 2017, Penn's academic research budget was $966 million, involving more than 4,600 faculty, 1,200 postdoctoral fellows, and 2,500 academic support staff.[4]

As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of state, 25 billionaires; 3 United States Supreme Court justices; 33 United States Senators, 42 United States Governors and 158 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; 8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence; 12 signers of the United States Constitution, and the current President of the United States.[17][18][19] In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.[20][21][22]

History

Academy and College of Philadelphia (c. 1780), 4th and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, home of what became the University from 1751 to 1801
"House intended for the President of the United States" from "Birch's Views of Philadelphia" (1800), home of the College of Philadelphia/University of Pennsylvania from 1801 to 1829
Benjamin Franklin was the primary founder, President of the Board of Trustees and a trustee of the Academy and College of Philadelphia, which merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to form the University of Pennsylvania in 1791 (Charles Willson Peale, 1785)
Ninth Street Campus (above Chestnut Street): Medical Hall (left) and College Hall (right), both built 1829–1830

University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities.[note 2] The university also considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

This statue of Benjamin Franklin donated by Justus C. Strawbridge to the City of Philadelphia in 1899 now sits in front of College Hall[23]

In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in.[24]:26 It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.[24]:30 In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia".[25] Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary, Yale and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith (1727-1803), an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.[26][27]

Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees (November 13, 1749), the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as "Independence Hall"), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered July 13, 1753[28]:12 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.[28]:13 All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution.[29] The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.[28]:14

1755 Charter creating the College of Philadelphia
"The Quad" in the Fall, from Fisher-Hassenfeld College House, facing Ware College House

The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith's "Loyalist" tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania.[29] The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees.[29]

Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America[30] made Penn the first institution to offer both "undergraduate" and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of "University"; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).[31]

After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849.[32] In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of "the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself".[33] The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn's General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university's founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.[34]

Early campuses

The Academy of Philadelphia, a secondary school for boys, began operations in 1751 in an unused church building at 4th and Arch Streets which had sat unfinished and dormant for over a decade. Upon receiving a collegiate charter in 1755, the first classes for the College of Philadelphia were taught in the same building, in many cases to the same boys who had already graduated from The Academy of Philadelphia. In 1801, the University moved to the unused Presidential Mansion at 9th and Market Streets, a building that both George Washington and John Adams had declined to occupy while Philadelphia was the temporary national capital.[28] Classes were held in the mansion until 1829, when it was demolished. Architect William Strickland designed twin buildings on the same site, College Hall and Medical Hall (both 1829–1830), which formed the core of the Ninth Street Campus until Penn's move to West Philadelphia in the 1870s.

Evolution from commuter school to residential university

Before World War II, Penn was predominantly a regional school, with many faculty, students and staff residing in the Philadelphia area. As a founding member of the Ivy League in 1954, Penn increased its national stature, but, more importantly, began to focus on serving the nation as a whole, rather than existing as a regional institution.[35] However, the physical campus was in need of significant capital improvement. [36]

After World War II, Penn began a capital spending program in order to overhaul its campus, especially student housing. The large number of students migrating to universities under the GI Bill, and the resultant increase in Penn's student population, highlighted that Penn had outgrown previous expansions, which ended during the Depression era.[37] This capital spending trend continued into the 1960s. As Penn Trustee Paul Miller stated in 1989, "...The bricks-and-mortar Capital Campaign of the Sixties...built the facilities that turned Penn from a commuter school to a residential one..."[38]

Educational innovations

College Hall and then Logan Hall viewed from Woodland Ave, c. 1892

Penn's educational innovations include: the nation's first medical school in 1765; the first university teaching hospital in 1874; the Wharton School, the world's first collegiate business school, in 1881; the first American student union building, Houston Hall, in 1896;[39] the country's second school of veterinary medicine; and the home of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose digital computer in 1946. Penn is also home to the oldest continuously functioning psychology department in North America and is where the American Medical Association was founded.[40][41] In 1921, Penn was also the first university to award a PhD to an African-American woman, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander (in economics).[42]

Statue of the Reverend George Whitefield at the University of Pennsylvania

Motto

Penn's motto is based on a line from Horace's III.24 (Book 3, Ode 24), quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ("of what avail empty laws without [good] morals?"). From 1756 to 1898, the motto read Sine Moribus Vanae. When it was pointed out that the motto could be translated as "Loose women without morals", the university quickly changed the motto to literae sine moribus vanae ("Letters without morals [are] useless"). In 1932, all elements of the seal were revised. As part of the redesign, it was decided that the new motto "mutilated" Horace, and it was changed to its present wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws without morals [are] useless").[43]

Seal

1757 Seal of the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania

The official seal of the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania serves as the signature and symbol of authenticity on documents issued by the corporation.[44] A request for one was first recorded in a meeting of the trustees in 1753 during which some of the Trustees "desired to get a Common Seal engraved for the Use of [the] Corporation". However, it was not until a meeting in 1756 that "a public Seal for the College with a proper device and Motto" was requested to be engraved in silver.[45] The most recent design, a modified version of the original seal, was approved in 1932, adopted a year later and is still used for much of the same purposes as the original.[44]

The outer ring of the current seal is inscribed with "Universitas Pennsylvaniensis", the Latin name of the University of Pennsylvania. The inside contains seven stacked books on a desk with the titles of subjects of the trivium and a modified quadrivium, components of a classical education: Theolog[ia], Astronom[ia], Philosoph[ia], Mathemat[ica], Logica, Rhetorica and Grammatica. Between the books and the outer ring is the Latin motto of the University, "Leges Sine Moribus Vanae".[44]

Other Languages
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pennsylvania Thai-ho̍k
Bahasa Indonesia: Universitas Pennsylvania
slovenščina: Univerza Pensilvanije
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Univerzitet u Pennsylvaniji
татарча/tatarça: Pensilvaniä universitetı