United States Naval Academy

United States Naval Academy
USNA Gold Seal.png
MottoLatin: Ex Scientia Tridens
Motto in English
From Knowledge, Seapower
TypeU.S. service academy
Established10 October 1845 (1845-10-10)
Academic affiliations
SuperintendentVADM Walter E. Carter Jr.
USNA Class of 1981
DeanAndrew T. Phillips
Commandant of MidshipmenCAPT Robert B. Chadwick II
USNA Class of 1991
Academic staff
Students4,576 midshipmen
Location, ,
United States
CampusUrban – 338 acres (136.8 ha)
Fight songAnchors Aweigh
ColorsNavy blue      and gold     
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division IPatriot League
U.S. Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy is located in Maryland
United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy is located in the United States
United States Naval Academy
LocationMaryland Ave. and Hanover St., Annapolis, Maryland
Built1845 (1845)
ArchitectErnest Flagg
EngineerSeverud Associates
Architectural styleBeaux Arts[2]
NRHP reference #66000386[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP15 October 1966
Designated NHLD4 July 1961[3]

The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus (known to insiders as "the Yard") is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis.[4]

Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,200 "plebes" (an abbreviation of the Ancient Roman word plebeian) enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are usually commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can also be cross-commissioned as officers in other U.S. services, and the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary.[5] The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, and mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept.


Rotunda steps leading to Memorial Hall

The United States Naval Academy's campus is located in unincorporated Anne Arundel County, Maryland, adjacent to Annapolis,[6][7] at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay.

In its 2016 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked the U.S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 12th best overall liberal arts college in the U.S.[8] In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is also tied for No. 1 with the U.S. Military Academy and the U.S. Air Force Academy, and is tied for the No. 5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered.[8] In 2016, Forbes ranked the U.S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges".[9]

Prospective candidates must either be nominated by certain public officials—or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient, which entitles a qualified candidate to automatic admission without nomination.[10] Nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources.[11] Candidates must also pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process. The class of 2020 had 1,355 offers of appointment made to 17,043 applicants.[12] In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes (freshmen).[13] The U.S. government pays for tuition, room, and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015.[14] From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, services, and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "firstie" (senior) year. Midshipmen fourth-class (plebes) to midshipmen second-class (juniors) receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses.

Students at the naval academy are addressed as Midshipman, an official military rank and paygrade. As midshipmen are actually in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term covers both males and females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning. If they are selected to serve as a pilot (aircraft), they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, and if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries.

The graduating class of 2017 had inducted exactly 1,200 midshipmen in 2013 and graduated 1,053 in 2017. 768 were commissioned as Navy Ensigns and 259 as Marine 2nd Lieutenants. This graduating class was composed of 242 women and 811 men[15] Since 1959, midshipmen have also been eligible for an interservice commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen also became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions. Every year, a small number of graduates do this—typically three or four.[citation needed] In 2017, two members of the class were commissioned as Air Force 2nd Lieutenants. A small number of foreign students are admitted each year. In 2017, 17 foreign midshipmen were graduated.

At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment, also known as signing their "2-for-7." This represents a commitment to finish two years at the academy and then an additional five years on active duty. Upon graduation, midshipmen are obligated to serve at minimum 5 years of service after graduation. Those selected for post-graduate education will continue concurrently with their commissioning obligation for officers in the U.S. Navy and consecutively for officers in the U.S. Marine Corps.

Midshipmen who entered the academy from civilian life and who resign or are separated from the academy in their first two years incur no military service obligation. Those who are separated—voluntarily or involuntarily – after that time are required to serve on active duty in an enlisted capacity, usually for two to four years. Alternatively, separated former midshipmen can reimburse the government for their educational expenses, though the sum is often in excess of $150,000. The decision whether to serve enlisted time or reimburse the government is at the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy. Midshipmen who entered the academy from the enlisted ranks return to their enlisted status to serve the remainder of their enlistment.

United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland
Other Languages
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mornarička akademija u Annapolisu