US Open (tennis)

US Open
Usopen-header-logo.svg
Official website
Founded1881; 137 years ago (1881)
Editions138 (2018)
LocationNew York City, New York,
United States
VenueUSTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
SurfaceGrass – outdoors (1881–1974)
Clay – outdoors (1975–1977)
Hard – outdoors (since 1978)[a]
Prize moneyUS$53 million (2018)[1]
Men's
Draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Current championsNovak Djokovic (singles)
Jack Sock
Mike Bryan (doubles)
Most singles titles7
Richard Sears
William Larned
Bill Tilden
Most doubles titles6
Richard Sears
Holcombe Ward
Women's
Draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Current championsNaomi Osaka (singles)
Ashleigh Barty
CoCo Vandeweghe (doubles)
Most singles titles8
Molla Mallory
Most doubles titles13
Margaret Osborne duPont
Mixed doubles
Draw32
Current championsBethanie Mattek-Sands
Jamie Murray
Most titles (male)4
Bill Tilden
Bill Talbert
Bob Bryan
Most titles (female)9
Margaret Osborne duPont
Grand Slam
Last completed
2018 US Open

The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hard court tennis tournament. The tournament is the modern version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, the U.S. National Championship, for which men's singles was first played in 1881.

Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tournament of the year. The other three, in chronological order, are the Australian Open, the French Open, and Wimbledon. The US Open starts on the last Monday of August and continues for two weeks, with the middle weekend coinciding with the U.S. Labor Day holiday.

The tournament consists of five primary championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles. The tournament also includes events for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens, New York City. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association (USTA), a non-profit organization, and the chairperson of the US Open is Katrina Adams.[citation needed] Revenue from ticket sales, sponsorships, and television contracts are used to develop tennis in the United States.

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that employs tiebreakers in every set of a singles match. For the other three Grand Slam events, a match that reaches 6–6 in the last possible set (the third for women and the fifth for men) continues until a player takes a two-game lead. As with the US Open, those events use tiebreakers to decide the other sets.

The US Open also is the only Grand Slam tournament with 16 qualifiers (instead of 12) in the women's singles draw.

History

1881–1914: Newport Casino

The Newport Casino Tennis Court (as of 2005), where the US Open was first held in 1881

The tournament was first held in August 1881 on grass courts at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island. That year, only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) were permitted to enter.[2] Richard Sears won the men's singles at this tournament, which was the first of his seven consecutive singles titles.[3]

Semifinal at the 1890 US Tennis Championships at Newport. Match between Oliver Campbell and Bob Huntington

From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final, where he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament. In 1915, the national championship was relocated to the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, Queens, New York City. The effort to relocate it to New York City began as early as 1911 when a group of tennis players, headed by New Yorker Karl Behr, started working on it.[4]

In the first years of the U.S. National Championship, only men competed and the tournament was known as the U.S. National Singles Championships for Men. In 1887, six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club. The winner was 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell. This was followed by the introduction of the U.S. Women's National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U.S. Mixed Doubles Championship in 1892. The women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917. Between 1890 and 1906, sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off for the right to compete against the defending champions in the challenge round.[5]

1915–1977: West Side Tennis Club

In early 1915, a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of moving the tournament. They argued that most tennis clubs, players, and fans were located in the New York City area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there.[6] This view was opposed by another group of players that included eight former national singles champions.[7][8] This contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5, 1915, with 128 votes in favor of and 119 against relocation.[9][10][11]

From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia.[12] It returned to the West Side Tennis Club in 1924 following completion of the 14,000-seat Forest Hills Stadium.[5] Although many already regarded it as a major championship, the International Lawn Tennis Federation officially designated it as one of the world's major tournaments commencing in 1924.[citation needed]

At the 1922 U.S. National Championships, the draw seeded players for the first time to prevent the leading players from playing each other in the early rounds.[13][14]

Open era

The open era began in 1968 when professional tennis players were allowed to compete for the first time at the Grand Slam tournament held at the West Side Tennis Club. The previous U.S. National Championships had been limited to amateur players. Except for mixed doubles,[citation needed] all events at the 1968 national tournament were open to professionals. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered, and prize money totaled US$100,000. In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreaker to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games. From 1970 through 1974, the US Open used a best-of-nine-point sudden-death tiebreaker before moving to the International Tennis Federation's (ITF) best-of-twelve points system.[3] In 1973, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women, with that year's singles champions,John Newcombe and Margaret Court, receiving US$25,000 each.[3] Beginning in 1975, the tournament was played on clay courts instead of grass, and floodlights allowed matches to be played at night.

Since 1978: USTA National Tennis Center

In 1978, the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club to the larger and newly constructed USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, Queens, three miles to the north. The tournament's court surface also switched from clay to hard. Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on three surfaces (grass, clay, and hard), while Chris Evert is the only woman to win US Open singles titles on two surfaces (clay and hard).[3]

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has been played every year since its inception.[15]

During the 2006 US Open, the complex was renamed to "USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center" in honor of Billie Jean King, a four-time US Open singles champion and women's tennis pioneer.[16]

From 1984 through 2015, the US Open deviated from traditional scheduling practices for tennis tournaments with a concept that came to be known as "Super Saturday": the men's and women's finals were played on the final Saturday and Sunday of the tournament respectively, and their respective semifinals were held one day prior. The Women's final was originally held in between the two men's semi-final matches; in 2001, the Women's final was moved to the evening so it could be played on primetime television, citing a major growth in popularity for women's tennis among viewers.[17] This scheduling pattern helped to encourage television viewership, but proved divisive among players because it only gave them less than a day's rest between their semi-finals and championship match.[18][19]

For five consecutive tournaments between 2007 through 2012, the men's final was postponed to Monday due to weather. In 2013 and 2014, the USTA intentionally scheduled the men's final on a Monday—a move praised for allowing the men's players an extra day's rest following the semifinals, but drew the ire of the ATP for further deviating from the structure of the other Grand Slams.[20][18] In 2015, the Super Saturday concept was dropped, and the US Open returned to a format similar to the other Grand Slams, with men's and women's finals on Saturday and Sunday. However, weather delays forced both sets of semifinals to be held on Friday that year.[21][19]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: VSA Ope (tennis)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Адкрыты чэмпіянат ЗША
bosanski: US Open
čeština: US Open (tenis)
Deutsch: US Open
emiliàn e rumagnòl: US Open
Esperanto: US Open (teniso)
Gaeilge: US Open
hrvatski: US Open
Bahasa Indonesia: AS Terbuka (tenis)
Lëtzebuergesch: US Open
lietuvių: US Open
मराठी: यू.एस. ओपन
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ယူအက်စ် အိုးပင်း
Nederlands: US Open (tennis)
polski: US Open
português: US Open de tênis
română: U.S. Open
Simple English: US Open (tennis)
slovenčina: US Open
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: US Open
татарча/tatarça: AQŞ açıq tennis yarışı