Type species

Cygnus cygnus, the whooper swan, is the type species of the genus Cygnus.

In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus.

In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types.[2]

In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus.[3]

Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.

Use in zoology

A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the classification and nomenclature (naming) of animals. The "type species" represents the reference species and thus "definition" for a particular genus name. Whenever a taxon containing multiple species must be divided into more than one genus, the type species automatically assigns the name of the original taxon to one of the resulting new taxa, the one that includes the type species.

The term "type species" is regulated in zoological nomenclature by article 42.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which defines a type species as the name-bearing type of the name of a genus or subgenus (a "genus-group name"). In the Glossary, type species is defined as

The nominal species that is the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus.[4]

The type species permanently attaches a formal name (the generic name) to a genus by providing just one species within that genus to which the genus name is permanently linked (i.e. the genus must include that species if it is to bear the name). The species name in turn is fixed, in theory, to a type specimen.

For example, the type species for the land snail genus Monacha is Helix cartusiana, the name under which the species was first described, known as Monacha cartusiana when placed in the genus Monacha. That genus is currently placed within the family Hygromiidae. The type genus for that family is the genus Hygromia.

The concept of the type species in zoology was introduced by Pierre André Latreille.[5]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Tipespesie
العربية: نوع نمطي
Bân-lâm-gú: Bô͘-sek chéng
беларуская: Тыпавы від
bosanski: Tipske vrste
čeština: Typový druh
Esperanto: Tipo-specio
euskara: Espezie tipo
français: Espèce type
galego: Especie tipo
한국어: 모식종
italiano: Serie tipo
magyar: Típusfaj
македонски: Типски вид
Nederlands: Typesoort
português: Espécie-tipo
română: Specie tip
русский: Типовой вид
Simple English: Type species
српски / srpski: Типска врста
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tipska vrsta
suomi: Tyyppilaji
українська: Типовий вид
Tiếng Việt: Loài điển hình
中文: 模式種