Turkey

Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti  ( Turkish)
Flag of Turkey
Anthem: 
Location of Turkey
Location of Turkey
Capital Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917; 32.833
Largest city Istanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017; 28.950
Official languages Turkish
Spoken languages [1]
Ethnic groups
Demonym
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
•  President
Tayyip Erdoğan
Binali Yıldırım
İsmail Kahraman
Legislature Grand National Assembly
Formation
19 May 1919
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
Area
• Total
783,356 km2 (302,455 sq mi) ( 36th)
• Water (%)
1.3
Population
• 2016 estimate
79,814,871 [2] ( 19th) ( 19th)
• Density
102 [3]/km2 (264.2/sq mi) ( 107th)
GDP ( PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$2.249 trillion [4] ( 13th)
• Per capita
$27,634 [4] ( 45th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$905 billion [4] ( 17th)
• Per capita
$11,124 [4] ( 60th)
Gini (2013) Positive decrease 40.0 [5]
medium ·  56th
HDI (2014) Increase 0.761 [6]
high ·  72nd
Currency Turkish lira (₺) ( TRY)
Time zone FET ( UTC+3)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy ( AD)
Drives on the right
Calling code +90
ISO 3166 code TR
Internet TLD .tr

Turkey ( i/ ( About this sound  listen); Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: About this sound  Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ; pronounced  [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti]), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. [7] Turkey is bordered by eight countries with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The country is encircled by seas on three sides with the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia and separate Europe and Asia. [8] Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the country's citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. [9] [10] Kurds are the largest minority at about 20% of the population, and other ethnic minorities include Circassians, Albanians, Arabs, Bosniaks and Laz. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] Minority languages spoken today in Turkey include Kurmanji, Arabic, Zaza, Kabardian and several others. [1]

The area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. [15] [16] [17] [18] After Alexander the Great conquered these lands, the area was Hellenized, a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. [17] [19] The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start of Turkification in Anatolia. [20] The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks. [21]

From the end of the 13th century the Ottomans started uniting Turkish principalities in Anatolia and then went on to create an empire that encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa. [22] The Ottoman Empire reached its peak territorial mass and became a world power during the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent in the early modern period. [23] It remained powerful and influential for two more centuries, until important setbacks in the 18th and 19th century forced it to cede strategic territories in Europe, which signalled the loss of its former military strength and wealth. After the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, the Ottoman Empire decided to join the Central Powers during World War I. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects. [I] [24] Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. [25] The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allies, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. [26] Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government. [27]

Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. [28] Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history. [29] [30] [31] [32]

Turkey's current administration headed by president Tayyip Erdoğan has reversed many of the earlier reforms, such as Freedom of the Press, a Legislative System of Checks and Balances, and a set of standards for secularism in government, as previously enacted by Atatürk. [33] [34] [35]

Etymology

The name of Turkey ( Turkish: Türkiye) can be divided into two components: the ethnonym Türk and the abstract suffix –iye meaning "owner", "land of" or "related to" (originally derived from the Greek and Latin suffixes –ia in Tourkia (Τουρκία) and Turchia; and later from the corresponding Arabic suffix –iyya in Turkiyya). The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. AD 735). [36] The Turkic self-designation Türk is first attested in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century AD. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." [37] An early form of the same name may be reflected in the form of "tie-le" ( 鐵勒) or "tu-jue" ( 突厥), name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BC. [38] The Greek name, Tourkia ( Greek: Τουρκία) was used by the Byzantine emperor and scholar Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his book De Administrando Imperio, [39] [40] though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars. [41] Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the northern shores of the Black and Caspian seas, was referred to as Tourkia (Land of the Turks) in Byzantine sources. [42] However, the Byzantines later began using this name to define the Seljuk-controlled parts of Anatolia in the centuries that followed the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The medieval Greek and Latin terms did not designate the same geographic area now known as Turkey. Instead, they were mostly synonymous with Tartary, a term including Khazaria and the other khaganates of the Central Asian steppe, until the appearance of the Seljuks and the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century, reflecting the progress of the Turkic expansion.

Other Languages
Acèh: Turuki
Адыгэбзэ: Тыркуей
адыгабзэ: Тыркуе
Afrikaans: Turkye
Akan: Turki
Alemannisch: Türkei
አማርኛ: ቱርክ
Ænglisc: Tyrcland
Аҧсшәа: Ҭырқәтәыла
العربية: تركيا
aragonés: Turquía
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܛܘܪܩܝܐ
armãneashti: Turchia
arpetan: Turquie
অসমীয়া: তুৰস্ক
asturianu: Turquía
Avañe'ẽ: Tuykia
авар: Туркия
Aymar aru: Turkiya
azərbaycanca: Türkiyə
تۆرکجه: تورکیه
bamanankan: Türkiye
বাংলা: তুরস্ক
Bahasa Banjar: Turki
Bân-lâm-gú: Thó͘-ní-kî
башҡортса: Төркиә
беларуская: Турцыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Турэччына
भोजपुरी: तुर्की
Bikol Central: Turkiya
Bislama: Teki
български: Турция
Boarisch: Tiakei
བོད་ཡིག: ཏུར་ཀི།
bosanski: Turska
brezhoneg: Turkia
буряад: Түрэг Улас
català: Turquia
Чӑвашла: Турци
Cebuano: Turkiya
čeština: Turecko
Chamoru: Turkey
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Turquía
Chi-Chewa: Turkey
chiShona: Turkey
chiTumbuka: Turkey
corsu: Turchia
Cymraeg: Twrci
dansk: Tyrkiet
davvisámegiella: Durka
Deitsch: Turkie
Deutsch: Türkei
ދިވެހިބަސް: ތުރުކީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Turkojska
eesti: Türgi
Ελληνικά: Τουρκία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Turchî
español: Turquía
Esperanto: Turkio
estremeñu: Turquia
euskara: Turkia
eʋegbe: Turkey
فارسی: ترکیه
Fiji Hindi: Turkey
føroyskt: Turkaland
français: Turquie
Frysk: Turkije
Fulfulde: Türkiye
furlan: Turchie
Gaeilge: An Tuirc
Gaelg: Yn Turkee
Gagauz: Türkiye
Gàidhlig: An Tuirc
galego: Turquía
贛語: 土耳其
Gĩkũyũ: Takĩ
ગુજરાતી: તુર્કસ્તાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: तुर्की
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thú-ngí-khì
한국어: 터키
Hausa: Turkiyya
Hawaiʻi: Tureke
Հայերեն: Թուրքիա
हिन्दी: तुर्की
hornjoserbsce: Turkowska
hrvatski: Turska
Ido: Turkia
Igbo: Turkéy
Ilokano: Turkia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তুরস্ক
Bahasa Indonesia: Turki
interlingua: Turchia
Interlingue: Turcia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑑᕐᑭ
Iñupiak: Turkey
Ирон: Турк
isiXhosa: ITurkiya
isiZulu: ITheki
íslenska: Tyrkland
italiano: Turchia
עברית: טורקיה
Basa Jawa: Turki
kalaallisut: Tyrkia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟರ್ಕಿ
Kapampangan: Turkiya
къарачай-малкъар: Тюрк
ქართული: თურქეთი
kaszëbsczi: Tëreckô
қазақша: Түркия
kernowek: Turki
Kinyarwanda: Turukiya
Kirundi: Turukiya
Kiswahili: Uturuki
коми: Турция
Kongo: Turki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tiki
Kurdî: Tirkiye
кырык мары: Турци
Ladino: Turkia
лакку: Туркия
лезги: Турция
لۊری شومالی: تورکیأ
latgaļu: Turceja
Latina: Turcia
latviešu: Turcija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tierkei
lietuvių: Turkija
Ligure: Turchia
Limburgs: Turkije
lingála: Turkí
Livvinkarjala: Turtsii
la .lojban.: turk
Luganda: Buturuki
lumbaart: Türchia
मैथिली: टर्की
македонски: Турција
Malagasy: Torkia
മലയാളം: തുർക്കി
Malti: Turkija
Māori: Tākei
მარგალური: თურქეთი
مصرى: توركيا
مازِرونی: ترکیه
Bahasa Melayu: Turki
Baso Minangkabau: Turki
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tū-ī-gì
Mirandés: Turquie
мокшень: Туркамастор
молдовеняскэ: Турчия
монгол: Турк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တူရကီနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Terki
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Turkey
Nederlands: Turkije
Nedersaksies: Turkije
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᑐᕒᑭ
नेपाली: टर्की
नेपाल भाषा: टर्की
日本語: トルコ
Napulitano: Turchia
нохчийн: Турци
Nordfriisk: Türkei
Norfuk / Pitkern: Turkii
norsk: Tyrkia
norsk nynorsk: Tyrkia
Nouormand: Turtchie
Novial: Turkia
occitan: Turquia
олык марий: Турций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ତୁର୍କୀ
Oromoo: Tarkii
Oshiwambo: Turkey
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Turkiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤੁਰਕੀ
Pälzisch: Turkije
Pangasinan: Turkiyo
پنجابی: ترکی
Papiamentu: Turkia
پښتو: تورکيه
Patois: Toerki
Перем Коми: Тюркия
Picard: Turkie
Piemontèis: Turchìa
Tok Pisin: Teki
Plattdüütsch: Törkie
polski: Turcja
Ποντιακά: Τουρκία
português: Turquia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tu'rkiya
qırımtatarca: Türkiye
română: Turcia
Romani: Turkiya
rumantsch: Tirchia
Runa Simi: Turkiya
русиньскый: Турція
русский: Турция
саха тыла: Түркийэ
Gagana Samoa: Take
संस्कृतम्: तुर्की
Sängö: Turukïi
sardu: Turkia
Scots: Turkey
Seeltersk: Turkäi
Sesotho: Türkiye
Sesotho sa Leboa: Turkey
Setswana: Turkey
shqip: Turqia
sicilianu: Turchìa
සිංහල: තුර්කිය
Simple English: Turkey
SiSwati: IThekhi
slovenčina: Turecko
slovenščina: Turčija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тѷрци
ślůnski: Turcyjo
Soomaaliga: Turkiga
کوردی: تورکیا
Sranantongo: Turkiyakondre
српски / srpski: Турска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Turska
Basa Sunda: Turki
suomi: Turkki
svenska: Turkiet
Tagalog: Turkiya
தமிழ்: துருக்கி
Taqbaylit: Tturk
tarandíne: Turchie
татарча/tatarça: Төркия
తెలుగు: టర్కీ
tetun: Turkia
ትግርኛ: የቱርክ ዶሮ
тоҷикӣ: Туркия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎬᏃ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Turkey
Tshivenda: Turkey
ತುಳು: ಟರ್ಕಿ
Türkçe: Türkiye
Türkmençe: Türkiýe
Twi: Turkey
тыва дыл: Турция
удмурт: Турция
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Turki
українська: Туреччина
اردو: ترکی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تۈركىيە جۇمھۇرىيىتى
Vahcuengh: Dujwjgiz
vèneto: Turchia
vepsän kel’: Turkanma
Tiếng Việt: Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ
Volapük: Türkän
Võro: Türgü
walon: Tourkeye
文言: 土耳其
West-Vlams: Turkeye
Winaray: Turkeya
Wolof: Tirki
吴语: 土耳其
Xitsonga: Turkey
ייִדיש: טערקיי
Yorùbá: Turkey
粵語: 土耳其
Zazaki: Tırkiya
Zeêuws: Turkije
žemaitėška: Torkėjė
中文: 土耳其
डोटेली: टर्की
Kabɩyɛ: Tuurkii