Republic of Turkey

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti  (Turkish)
Osman Zeki Üngör's
Location of Turkey
40°N 33°E / 40°N 33°E / 40; 33
Official languagesTurkish
Spoken languages[1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Fuat Oktay
Mustafa Şentop
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
19 May 1919
23 April 1920
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
• Total
783,356 km2 (302,455 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Increase 82,003,882[2] (19th)
• Density
105[3]/km2 (271.9/sq mi) (107th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.347 trillion[4] (13th)
• Per capita
Increase $28,264[4] (45th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $743.708 billion[4] (19th)
• Per capita
Decrease $8,958[4] (60th)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 41.9[5]
medium · 56th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.791[6]
high · 64th
CurrencyTurkish lira (₺) (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR
Internet TLD.tr

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti] (About this soundlisten)), is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, the part of Turkey in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous and the Dardanelles (collectively called the Turkish Straits).[7] Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city while Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish.[8][9] Kurds are the largest minority at anywhere from 15 to 20 percent of the population.

At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilisations including the Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, and Armenians.[10][11][12] Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era.[11][13] The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolises the start and foundation of Turkey.[14] The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkmen principalities.[15] Beginning in the late 13th century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power.[10][16][17] In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars.[18] In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens.[19]

In 1913, a coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects.[I][22] Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states.[23] The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.[24] Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government.[25] The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 primarily in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey.

Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been effectively stopped by the EU in 2018 with the EU's General Affairs Council stating that "the Council notes that Turkey has been moving further away from the European Union. Turkey’s accession negotiations have therefore effectively come to a standstill and no further chapters can be considered for opening or closing and no further work towards the modernisation of the EU-Turkey Customs Union is foreseen."[26][27] Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.[28][29] Turkey is a secular, unitary, formerly parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018. It is currently ranked 110 out of 167 countries in the Democracy Index.[30] Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, and undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press.[31][32]


The English name of Turkey (from Medieval Latin Turchia/Turquia[33]) means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess (c. 1369). The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Later usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum ("Turkie, Tartaria") and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum (Turky). The modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719.[34] The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage.[33]

Other Languages
Acèh: Turuki
Адыгэбзэ: Тыркуей
адыгабзэ: Тыркуе
Afrikaans: Turkye
Akan: Turki
Alemannisch: Türkei
አማርኛ: ቱርክ
Ænglisc: Tyrcland
Аҧсшәа: Ҭырқәтәыла
العربية: تركيا
aragonés: Turquía
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܛܘܪܩܝܐ
armãneashti: Turchia
arpetan: Turquie
অসমীয়া: তুৰস্ক
asturianu: Turquía
Avañe'ẽ: Tuykia
авар: Туркия
Aymar aru: Turkiya
azərbaycanca: Türkiyə
تۆرکجه: تورکیه
Bali: Turki
bamanankan: Türkiye
বাংলা: তুরস্ক
Banjar: Turki
Bân-lâm-gú: Thó͘-ní-kî
Basa Banyumasan: Turki
башҡортса: Төркиә
беларуская: Турцыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Турэччына
भोजपुरी: तुर्की
Bikol Central: Turkiya
Bislama: Teki
български: Турция
Boarisch: Tiakei
བོད་ཡིག: ཏུར་ཀི།
bosanski: Turska
brezhoneg: Turkia
буряад: Түрэг Улас
català: Turquia
Чӑвашла: Турци
Cebuano: Turkeya
čeština: Turecko
Chamoru: Turkey
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Turquía
Chi-Chewa: Turkey
chiShona: Turkey
chiTumbuka: Turkey
corsu: Turchia
Cymraeg: Twrci
dansk: Tyrkiet
davvisámegiella: Durka
Deitsch: Turkie
Deutsch: Türkei
ދިވެހިބަސް: ތުރުކީވިލާތް
dolnoserbski: Turkojska
डोटेली: टर्की
eesti: Türgi
Ελληνικά: Τουρκία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Turchî
español: Turquía
Esperanto: Turkio
estremeñu: Turquia
euskara: Turkia
eʋegbe: Turkey
فارسی: ترکیه
Fiji Hindi: Turkey
føroyskt: Turkaland
français: Turquie
Frysk: Turkije
Fulfulde: Turkiya
furlan: Turchie
Gaeilge: An Tuirc
Gaelg: Yn Turkee
Gagauz: Türkiye
Gàidhlig: An Tuirc
galego: Turquía
ГӀалгӀай: Туркий мохк
贛語: 土耳其
Gĩkũyũ: Takĩ
ગુજરાતી: તુર્કસ્તાન
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍄𐍅𐍂𐌺𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: तुर्की
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thú-ngí-khì
한국어: 터키
Hausa: Turkiyya
Hawaiʻi: Tureke
հայերեն: Թուրքիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Թուրքիա
हिन्दी: तुर्की
hornjoserbsce: Turkowska
hrvatski: Turska
Bahasa Hulontalo: Turki
Ido: Turkia
Igbo: Turkéy
Ilokano: Turkia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তুরস্ক
Bahasa Indonesia: Turki
interlingua: Turchia
Interlingue: Turcia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑑᕐᑭ
Iñupiak: Turkey
Ирон: Турк
isiXhosa: ITurkiya
isiZulu: ITheki
íslenska: Tyrkland
italiano: Turchia
עברית: טורקיה
Jawa: Turki
Kabɩyɛ: Tuurkii
kalaallisut: Tyrkia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟರ್ಕಿ
Kapampangan: Turkiya
къарачай-малкъар: Тюрк
ქართული: თურქეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ترکی
kaszëbsczi: Tëreckô
қазақша: Түркия
kernowek: Turki
Kinyarwanda: Turukiya
Kirundi: Turukiya
Kiswahili: Uturuki
коми: Турция
Kongo: Turki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tiki
kurdî: Tirkiye
Кыргызча: Түркия
кырык мары: Турци
Ladino: Turkia
лакку: Туркия
لۊری شومالی: تۏرکیٱ
latgaļu: Turceja
Latina: Turcia
latviešu: Turcija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tierkei
лезги: Турция
lietuvių: Turkija
Ligure: Turchia
Limburgs: Turkije
lingála: Turkí
Lingua Franca Nova: Turcia
Livvinkarjala: Turtsii
la .lojban.: turk
Luganda: Buturuki
lumbaart: Türchia
मैथिली: टर्की
македонски: Турција
Malagasy: Torkia
മലയാളം: തുർക്കി
Malti: Turkija
Māori: Tākei
მარგალური: თურქეთი
مصرى: توركيا
مازِرونی: ترکیه
Bahasa Melayu: Turki
Minangkabau: Turki
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tū-ī-gì
Mirandés: Turquie
мокшень: Туркамастор
монгол: Турк
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တူရကီနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Turquia
Dorerin Naoero: Terki
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Turkey
Nederlands: Turkije
Nedersaksies: Turkije
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᑐᕒᑭ
नेपाली: टर्की
नेपाल भाषा: टर्की
日本語: トルコ
Napulitano: Turchia
нохчийн: Туркойчоь
Nordfriisk: Türkei
Norfuk / Pitkern: Turkii
norsk: Tyrkia
norsk nynorsk: Tyrkia
Nouormand: Turtchie
Novial: Turkia
occitan: Turquia
олык марий: Турций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ତୁର୍କୀ
Oromoo: Tarkii
Oshiwambo: Turkey
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Turkiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤੁਰਕੀ
Pälzisch: Türkei
Pangasinan: Turkiyo
پنجابی: ترکی
Papiamentu: Turkia
پښتو: تورکيه
Patois: Toerki
Перем Коми: Тюркия
Picard: Turkie
Piemontèis: Turchìa
Tok Pisin: Teki
Plattdüütsch: Törkie
polski: Turcja
Ποντιακά: Τουρκία
português: Turquia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Túrkiya
qırımtatarca: Türkiye
reo tahiti: Turiti
română: Turcia
romani čhib: Turkiya
rumantsch: Tirchia
Runa Simi: Turkiya
русиньскый: Турція
русский: Турция
саха тыла: Түркийэ
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱩᱨᱠᱤ
Gagana Samoa: Take
संस्कृतम्: तुर्की
Sängö: Turukïi
sardu: Turkia
Scots: Turkey
Seeltersk: Turkäi
Sesotho: Türkiye
Sesotho sa Leboa: Turkey
Setswana: Turkey
shqip: Turqia
sicilianu: Turchìa
සිංහල: තුර්කිය
Simple English: Turkey
سنڌي: ترڪي
SiSwati: IThekhi
slovenčina: Turecko
slovenščina: Turčija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тѷрци
ślůnski: Turcyjo
Soomaaliga: Turkiga
کوردی: تورکیا
Sranantongo: Turkiyakondre
српски / srpski: Турска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Turska
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : မိူင်းၽိၼ်ႇလၢၼ
Sunda: Turki
suomi: Turkki
svenska: Turkiet
Tagalog: Turkey
தமிழ்: துருக்கி
Taqbaylit: Tturk
tarandíne: Turchie
татарча/tatarça: Төркия
తెలుగు: టర్కీ
tetun: Turkia
ትግርኛ: ቱርክ
тоҷикӣ: Туркия
lea faka-Tonga: Toake
Tsetsêhestâhese: Turkey
Tshivenda: Turkey
ತುಳು: ಟರ್ಕಿ
Türkçe: Türkiye
Türkmençe: Türkiýe
Twi: Turkey
тыва дыл: Турция
удмурт: Турция
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Turki
українська: Туреччина
اردو: ترکی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تۈركىيە جۇمھۇرىيىتى
Vahcuengh: Dujwjgiz
vèneto: Turchia
vepsän kel’: Turkanma
Tiếng Việt: Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ
Volapük: Türkän
Võro: Türgü
walon: Tourkeye
文言: 土耳其
West-Vlams: Turkeye
Winaray: Turkeya
Wolof: Tirki
吴语: 土耳其
Xitsonga: Turkey
ייִדיש: טערקיי
Yorùbá: Turkey
粵語: 土耳其
Zazaki: Tırkiya
Zeêuws: Turkije
žemaitėška: Torkėjė
中文: 土耳其