Turing Award

ACM Turing Award
Turing-statue-Bletchley 11.jpg
Awarded forOutstanding contributions in computer science
CountryUnited States
Presented byAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Reward(s)US $1,000,000[1]
First awarded1966; 54 years ago (1966)
Last awarded2019

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".[2] The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science.[3][4][5][6]

The award is named after Alan Turing, who was a British mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester. Turing is often credited as being the key founder of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.[7] From 2007 to 2013, the award was accompanied by an additional prize of US$250,000, with financial support provided by Intel and Google.[2] Since 2014, the award has been accompanied by a prize of US$1 million, with financial support provided by Google.[1][8]

The first recipient, in 1966, was Alan Perlis, of Carnegie Mellon University. The first female recipient was Frances E. Allen of IBM in 2006.[9]


1966Alan PerlisFor his influence in the area of advanced computer programming techniques and compiler construction.[10]
1967Maurice WilkesMaurice Vincent Wilkes 1980 (3, cropped).jpgWilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced.[11]
1968Richard HammingFor his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes.[12]
1969Marvin MinskyMarvin Minsky at OLPCc.jpgFor his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing the field of artificial intelligence.[13]
1970James H. WilkinsonFor his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis.[14]
1971John McCarthyJohn McCarthy Stanford.jpgMcCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work.[15]
1972Edsger W. DijkstraEdsger Wybe Dijkstra.jpgEdsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ALGOL, a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages.[16]
1973Charles BachmanCharles Bachman 2012.jpgFor his outstanding contributions to database technology.[17]
1974Donald KnuthKnuthAtOpenContentAlliance.jpgFor his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to "The Art of Computer Programming" through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title.[18]
1975Allen NewellIn joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequently with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.[19]
Herbert A. SimonHerbert simon red cropped.jpg
1976Michael O. RabinM O Rabin.jpgFor their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem,"[20] which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.[21][22]
Dana ScottScott Dana small.jpg
1977John BackusJohn Backus 2.jpgFor profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages.[23]
1978Robert W. FloydFor having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms.[24]
1979Kenneth E. IversonKei younger.jpgFor his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice.[25]
1980Tony HoareSir Tony Hoare IMG 5125.jpgFor his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages.[26]
1981Edgar F. CoddFor his fundamental and continuing contributions to the theory and practice of database management systems, esp. relational databases.[27]
1982Stephen A. CookProf.Cook (cropped).jpgFor his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way.[28]
1983Ken ThompsonKen Thompson 02.jpgFor their development of generic operating systems theory and specifically for the implementation of the UNIX operating system.[29][30]
Dennis M. RitchieDennis Ritchie 2011.jpg
1984Niklaus WirthNiklaus Wirth, UrGU (cropped).jpgFor developing a sequence of innovative computer languages, EULER, ALGOL-W, MODULA and Pascal.
1985Richard M. KarpKarp mg 7725-b.cr2.jpgFor his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomial-time computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NP-completeness.
1986John HopcroftHopcrofg (cropped).jpgFor fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures.
Robert TarjanBob Tarjan.jpg
1987John CockeFor significant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC).
1988Ivan SutherlandIvan Sutherland at CHM.jpgFor his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after.
1989William KahanWilliam Kahan 2008 (cropped).jpgFor his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floating-point computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations."
1990Fernando J. CorbatóFernando Corbato.jpgFor his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the general-purpose, large-scale, time-sharing and resource-sharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics.
1991Robin MilnerFor three distinct and complete achievements: 1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.[31]
1992Butler W. LampsonProfessional Developers Conference 2009 Technical Leaders Panel 6 (cropped).jpgFor contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing.
1993Juris HartmanisJuris Hartmanis(2002).jpgIn recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.[32]
Richard E. StearnsDick Stearns (cropped).jpg
1994Edward Feigenbaum27. Dr. Edward A. Feigenbaum 1994-1997.jpgFor pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.[33]
Raj ReddyProfReddys Photo Cropped.jpg
1995Manuel BlumBlum manuel (cropped).jpgIn recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.[34]
1996Amir PnueliAmir Pnueli.jpgFor seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.[35]
1997Douglas EngelbartDouglas Engelbart in 2008.jpgFor an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.[36]
1998Jim GrayJim Gray Computing in the 21st Century 2006 (cropped).jpgFor seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation.
1999Frederick P. BrooksFred Brooks (cropped).jpgFor landmark contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering.
2000Andrew Chi-Chih YaoAndrew Yao MFO (cropped).jpgIn recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity.
2001Ole-Johan DahlFor ideas fundamental to the emergence of object-oriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67.
Kristen NygaardKristen-Nygaard-SBLP-1997-head.png
2002Ron RivestRonald L Rivest photo.jpgFor their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
Adi ShamirAdi Shamir at TU Darmstadt (2013).jpg
Leonard M. AdlemanLen-mankin-pic.jpg
2003Alan KayAlan Kay (3097597186) (cropped).jpgFor pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary object-oriented programming languages, leading the team that developed Smalltalk, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing.
2004Vint CerfDr Vint Cerf ForMemRS (cropped).jpgFor pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking.
Bob KahnBob Kahn.jpg
2005Peter NaurPeternaur.JPGFor fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming.
2006Frances E. AllenAllen mg 2528-3750K-b.jpgFor pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution.
2007Edmund M. ClarkeEdmund Clarke FLoC 2006 (cropped).jpgFor their roles in developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.[37]
E. Allen Emerson
Joseph SifakisJoseph Sifakis img 0966.jpg
2008Barbara LiskovBarbara Liskov MIT computer scientist 2010.jpgFor contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing.
2009Charles P. ThackerChuckthacker (cropped).jpgFor his pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC.
2010Leslie G. ValiantLeslie Valiant (cropped).jpgFor transformative contributions to the theory of computation, including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing.
2011Judea Pearl[38]Judea Pearl at NIPS 2013 (11781981594) (cropped).jpgFor fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.[39]
2012Silvio MicaliSilvio Micali (cropped).jpgFor transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.[40]
Shafi GoldwasserShafi Goldwasser.JPG
2013Leslie LamportLeslie Lamport.jpgFor fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.[41][42]
2014Michael StonebrakerMichael Stonebraker P1120062.jpgFor fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.[43]
2015Martin E. HellmanMartin-Hellman.jpgFor fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography,"[44] introduced the ideas of public-key cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularly-used security protocols on the Internet today.[45]
Whitfield DiffieWhitfield Diffie Royal Society (cropped).jpg
2016Tim Berners-LeeSir Tim Berners-Lee (cropped).jpgFor inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale.[46]
2017John L. HennessyJohn L Hennessy (cropped).jpgFor pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry.[47]
David PattersonDavid A Patterson.jpg
2018Yoshua BengioYoshua Bengio - 2017.jpgFor conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.[48]
Geoffrey HintonGeoffrey Hinton at UBC (cropped).jpg
Yann LeCunYann LeCun - 2018 (cropped).jpg
2019Ed CatmullVES Awards 89 cropped.jpgFor fundamental contributions to 3-D computer graphics, and the revolutionary impact of these techniques on computer-generated imagery (CGI) in filmmaking and other applications.[49]
Pat HanrahanPat Hanrahan Tableau Customer Conference 2009.jpg

See also


  1. ^ a b Cacm Staff (2014). "ACM's Turing Award prize raised to $1 million". Communications of the ACM. 57 (12): 20. 10.1145/2685372.
  2. ^ a b "A. M. Turing Award". ACM. Archived from the original on 2009-12-12. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  3. ^ Dasgupta, Sanjoy; Papadimitriou, Christos; Vazirani, Umesh (2008). Algorithms. McGraw-Hill. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-07-352340-8.
  4. ^ Bibliography of Turing Award lectures, DBLP
  5. ^ Geringer, Steven (27 July 2007). "ACM'S Turing Award Prize Raised To $250,000". the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  6. ^ See also: Brown, Bob (June 6, 2011). "Why there's no Nobel Prize in Computing". Network World. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  7. ^ Homer, Steven and Alan L. (2001). Computability and Complexity Theory. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-387-95055-6. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  8. ^ "ACM's Turing Award Prize Raised to $1 Million". ACM. Archived from the original on 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  9. ^ "First Woman to Receive ACM Turing Award" (Press release). The Association for Computing Machinery. February 21, 2007. Archived from the original on July 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  10. ^ Perlis, A. J. (1967). "The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems". Journal of the ACM. 14: 1–9. 10.1145/321371.321372.
  11. ^ Wilkes, M. V. (1968). "Computers then and Now". Journal of the ACM. 15: 1–7. 10.1145/321439.321440.
  12. ^ Hamming, R. W. (1969). "One Man's View of Computer Science". Journal of the ACM. 16: 3–12. 10.1145/321495.321497.
  13. ^ Minsky, M. (1970). "Form and Content in Computer Science (1970 ACM turing lecture)". Journal of the ACM. 17 (2): 197–215. 10.1145/321574.321575.
  14. ^ Wilkinson, J. H. (1971). "Some Comments from a Numerical Analyst". Journal of the ACM. 18 (2): 137–147. 10.1145/321637.321638.
  15. ^ McCarthy, J. (1987). "Generality in artificial intelligence". Communications of the ACM. 30 (12): 1030–1035. 10.1145/33447.33448.
  16. ^ Dijkstra, E. W. (1972). "The humble programmer". Communications of the ACM. 15 (10): 859–866. 10.1145/355604.361591.
  17. ^ Bachman, C. W. (1973). "The programmer as navigator". Communications of the ACM. 16 (11): 653–658. 10.1145/355611.362534.
  18. ^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). "Computer programming as an art". Communications of the ACM. 17 (12): 667–673. 10.1145/361604.361612.
  19. ^ Newell, A.; Simon, H. A. (1976). "Computer science as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search". Communications of the ACM. 19 (3): 113. 10.1145/360018.360022.
  20. ^ Rabin, M. O.; Scott, D. (1959). "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems". IBM Journal of Research and Development. 3 (2): 114. 10.1147/rd.32.0114.
  21. ^ Rabin, M. O. (1977). "Complexity of computations". Communications of the ACM. 20 (9): 625–633. 10.1145/359810.359816.
  22. ^ Scott, D. S. (1977). "Logic and programming languages". Communications of the ACM. 20 (9): 634–641. 10.1145/359810.359826.
  23. ^ Backus, J. (1978). "Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style?: A functional style and its algebra of programs". Communications of the ACM. 21 (8): 613–641. 10.1145/359576.359579.
  24. ^ Floyd, R. W. (1979). "The paradigms of programming". Communications of the ACM. 22 (8): 455–460. 10.1145/359138.359140.
  25. ^ Iverson, K. E. (1980). "Notation as a tool of thought". Communications of the ACM. 23 (8): 444–465. 10.1145/358896.358899.
  26. ^ Hoare, C. A. R. (1981). "The emperor's old clothes". Communications of the ACM. 24 (2): 75–83. 10.1145/358549.358561.
  27. ^ Codd, E. F. (1982). "Relational database: A practical foundation for productivity". Communications of the ACM. 25 (2): 109–117. 10.1145/358396.358400.
  28. ^ Cook, S. A. (1983). "An overview of computational complexity". Communications of the ACM. 26 (6): 400–408. 10.1145/358141.358144.
  29. ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate - Kenneth Lane Thompson". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  30. ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate - Dennis M. Ritchie". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  31. ^ Milner, R. (1993). "Elements of interaction: Turing award lecture". Communications of the ACM. 36: 78–89. 10.1145/151233.151240.
  32. ^ Stearns, R. E. (1994). "Turing Award lecture: It's time to reconsider time". Communications of the ACM. 37 (11): 95–99. 10.1145/188280.188379.
  33. ^ Reddy, R. (1996). "To dream the possible dream". Communications of the ACM. 39 (5): 105–112. 10.1145/229459.233436.
  34. ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate - Manuel Blum". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  35. ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate - Amir Pnueli". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  36. ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate - Douglas Engelbart". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  37. ^ 2007 Turing Award Winners Announced
  38. ^ Pearl, Judea (2011). The Mechanization of Causal Inference: A "mini" Turing Test and Beyond (mp4). ACM Turing Award Lectures. 10.1145/1283920.2351636 (inactive 2020-01-22). ISBN 978-1-4503-1049-9.
  39. ^ "Judea Pearl". ACM.
  40. ^ "Turing award 2012". ACM. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18.
  41. ^ "Turing award 2013". ACM.
  42. ^ "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system" (PDF). Communications of the ACM. 21 (7): 558–565. CiteSeerX CiteSeerX 10.1145/359545.359563.
  43. ^ "Turing award 2014". ACM.
  44. ^ Diffie, W.; Hellman, M. (1976). "New directions in cryptography" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 22 (6): 644–654. CiteSeerX CiteSeerX 10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638.
  45. ^ "Cryptography Pioneers Receive 2015 ACM A.M. Turing Award". ACM.
  46. ^ "Turing award 2016". ACM.
  47. ^ "Pioneers of Modern Computer Architecture Receive ACM A.M. Turing Award". ACM.
  48. ^ Fathers of the Deep Learning Revolution Receive ACM A.M. Turing Award
  49. ^ Pioneers of Modern Computer Graphics Recognized with ACM A.M. Turing Award – Hanrahan and Catmull’s Innovations Paved the Way for Today’s 3-D Animated Films. Retrieved March 19, 2020.

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