Turin

Turin
Torino
Comune
Città di Torino
Turin and Mole Antonelliana, with the Alps as background, from Monte dei Cappuccini in 2013
Turin and Mole Antonelliana, with the Alps as background, from Monte dei Cappuccini in 2013
Flag of Turin
Flag
Coat of arms of Turin
Coat of arms
Map - IT - Torino - Municipality code 1272.svg
Turin is located in Piedmont
Turin
Turin
Location of Turin in Piedmont
Turin is located in Italy
Turin
Turin
Turin (Italy)
Turin is located in Europe
Turin
Turin
Turin (Europe)
Coordinates: 45°04′45″N 07°40′34″E / 45°04′45″N 07°40′34″E / 45.07917; 7.67611
UNESCO World Heritage site
Official nameResidences of the Royal House of Savoy
Includesseveral locations in Turin
823bis
Inscription1997 (21st Session)
Extensions2010

Turin (n/;[2] Italian: Torino [toˈriːno] (About this sound listen); Piedmontese: Turin [tyˈriŋ] (About this sound listen))[3] is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin (an administrative division of Italy) and of the Piedmont region, and was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 883,281 (30 November 2017)[4] while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.[5]

The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-classical, and Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.

The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, and the first capital of the unified Italy (the Kingdom of Italy) from 1861 to 1865.[6][7] Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.[8]

The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, and the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio[9] and the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.[10]

Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.[11] With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power.[12] As of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city.[13] Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.[14][15]

Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers FIAT, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics.

History

The Roman Palatine Towers.
Historical affiliations
Consul et lictores.png Roman Republic 58–27 BC

Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire 27 BC–285 AD
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Western Roman Empire 285–476
Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Simple Labarum.svg Eastern Roman Empire 553–569
Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg Lombard Kingdom 569–773
Charlemagne autograph.svg Carolingian Empire 773–888
Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg March of Ivrea 888–941
Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg March of Turin 941–1046
Coat of arms of the House of Savoy (early).svg County of Savoy 1046–1416
Blason duche fr Savoie.svg Duchy of Savoy 1416–1792
Flag of France (1790–1794).svg First French Republic 1792–1804
Flag of France.svg First French Empire 1804–1814
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia.svg Kingdom of Sardinia 1814–1861
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Kingdom of Italy 1861–1943
War flag of the Italian Social Republic.svg Italian Social Republic 1943–1945
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Kingdom of Italy 1945–1946

Flag of Italy.svg Italian Republic 1946–present

Ancient origins

The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian[16] Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.

In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres. The Taurini chief town (Taurasia) was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege.[17] As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum and afterwards Julia Augusta Taurinorum (modern Turin). Both Livy[18] and Strabo[19] mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.

Roman times

In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.

Middle Ages

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but then conquered again by the Lombards and then the Franks of Charlemagne (773). The Contea di Torino (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.

Early modern

Turin in the 17th century.

Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace of Turin) was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.

In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily, soon traded for Sardinia, and part of the former Duchy of Milan, and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom. The architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city; Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.

Late modern and contemporary

A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction.

Turin, like the rest of Piedmont, was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became the seat of the prefecture of department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards the unification of Italy. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of Italy[20] until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence, and then to Rome after the 1870 conquest of the Papal States. The 1871 opening of the Fréjus Tunnel made Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana, the Egyptian Museum, the Gran Madre di Dio church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.

After World War I, harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci. On the other hand, Benito Mussolini largely subsidized the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for several years.

Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945. By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians.[21][22]

In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundred of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern Italian city after Naples and Palermo". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of the Automobile Capital of Italy and the Detroit of Italy (Turin has been "twinned" with Detroit since 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Turyn
አማርኛ: ቶሪኖ
العربية: تورينو
aragonés: Turín
arpetan: Turin
asturianu: Turín
Aymar aru: Torino
azərbaycanca: Turin
تۆرکجه: تورین
বাংলা: তুরিন
Bân-lâm-gú: Torino
башҡортса: Турин
беларуская: Турын
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Турын
български: Торино
བོད་ཡིག: ཊུ་རིན།
bosanski: Torino
brezhoneg: Torino
català: Torí
Чӑвашла: Турин
čeština: Turín
corsu: Turinu
Cymraeg: Torino
dansk: Torino
Deutsch: Turin
eesti: Torino
Ελληνικά: Τορίνο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Turén
español: Turín
Esperanto: Torino
estremeñu: Turín
euskara: Turin
فارسی: تورین
føroyskt: Torino
français: Turin
furlan: Turin
Gaeilge: Torino
Gàidhlig: Torino
galego: Turín
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Torino
한국어: 토리노
Hausa: Torino
հայերեն: Թուրին
हिन्दी: टोरीनो
hrvatski: Torino
Ido: Torino
Bahasa Indonesia: Torino
Interlingue: Torino
Ирон: Турин
íslenska: Tórínó
italiano: Torino
עברית: טורינו
Basa Jawa: Torino
ქართული: ტურინი
қазақша: Турин
kernowek: Torino
Kiswahili: Torino
коми: Турин
Кыргызча: Турин
latviešu: Turīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Turin
лезги: Турин
lietuvių: Turinas
Ligure: Torin
Limburgs: Turien (sjtad)
lumbaart: Türì
magyar: Torino
македонски: Торино
മലയാളം: ടൂറിൻ
मराठी: तोरिनो
مازِرونی: تورینو
Bahasa Melayu: Turin
монгол: Турин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တျူးရင်းမြို့
Nederlands: Turijn (stad)
日本語: トリノ
Napulitano: Turino
нохчийн: Турин
norsk: Torino
norsk nynorsk: Torino
occitan: Turin
олык марий: Турин
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Turin
Papiamentu: Turin
Picard: Turin
Piemontèis: Turin
Plattdüütsch: Turin
polski: Turyn
português: Turim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Turin
română: Torino
Runa Simi: Torino
русский: Турин
संस्कृतम्: टोरीनो
sardu: Torinu
Scots: Turin
shqip: Torino
sicilianu: Turinu
Simple English: Turin
slovenčina: Turín
slovenščina: Torino
ślůnski: Turyn
Soomaaliga: Torino
српски / srpski: Торино
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Torino
suomi: Torino
svenska: Turin
தமிழ்: துரின்
tarandíne: Torino
татарча/tatarça: Торино
ไทย: ตูริน
тоҷикӣ: Турин
Türkçe: Torino
Twi: Torino
удмурт: Турин
українська: Турин
اردو: تورینو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Turin
vèneto: Turìn
vepsän kel’: Turin
Tiếng Việt: Torino
Volapük: Torino
Winaray: Turin
吴语: 都灵
ייִדיש: טורין
粵語: 拖連奴
中文: 都灵