Psetta maxima Luc Viatour.jpg
Scientific classification edit
S. maximus
Binomial name
Scophthalmus maximus

The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a species of flatfish in the family Scophthalmidae. It is a demersal fish native to marine or brackish waters of the North Atlantic, Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.


The word comes from the Old French tourbout, which in turn is thought to be a derivative of the Latin turbo ("spinning top") a possible reference to its shape.[2] Another possible origin of the Old French word is from Old Swedish törnbut, from törn "thorn" + -but "stump, butt, flatfish", which may also be a reference to its shape (compare native English halibut).[3] Early reference to the turbot can be found in a satirical poem (The Emperor's Fish) by Juvenal, a Roman poet of the late 1st and early 2nd centuries A.D., suggesting this fish was a delicacy in the Roman empire.

In English, turbot is pronounced t/ TUR-bət.[4] The French pronunciation of "turbot" is [tyʁbo].

In Turkey, where the fish is popular and expensive, it is called kalkan ("shield"), from its shape. Instead of a smooth skin, kalkan (Scophthalmus maeoticus), which is from the Black Sea, has small spikes on both sides; it is considered a subspecies of the Mediterranean turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

Other Languages
العربية: طربوت عملاق
български: Калкан
brezhoneg: Turbodenn
čeština: Pakambala velká
Cymraeg: Torbwt
dansk: Pighvar
Deutsch: Steinbutt
Ελληνικά: Καλκάνι
Esperanto: Turboto
فارسی: سپرماهی
Gaeilge: Turbard
galego: Rodaballo
Ido: Turboto
Bahasa Indonesia: Ikan turbot
íslenska: Sandhverfa
italiano: Psetta maxima
Lëtzebuergesch: Turbot
lietuvių: Paprastasis otas
Nederlands: Tarbot
日本語: イシビラメ
Nordfriisk: Stianbot
norsk: Piggvar
polski: Skarp
português: Psetta maxima
русский: Тюрбо
Simple English: Turbot
svenska: Piggvar
українська: Калкан великий
Tiếng Việt: Scophthalmus maximus
West-Vlams: Terrebut
中文: 大菱鮃