Tunnel

Tunnel in Fort de Mutzig, France
Decorated entrance to a road tunnel in Guanajuato, Mexico
Utility tunnel for heating pipes between Rigshospitalet and Amagerværket in Copenhagen, Denmark
Tunnel on the Taipei Metro in Taiwan
Southern portal of the 421 m long (1,381 ft) Chirk canal tunnel

A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.

A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. The central portions of a rapid transit network are usually in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment.

Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons, contraband, or people. Special tunnels, such as wildlife crossings, are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely. Tunnels can be connected together in tunnel networks.

Terminology

A tunnel is relatively long and narrow; the length is often much greater than twice the diameter, although similar shorter excavations can be constructed, such as cross passages between tunnels.

The definition of what constitutes a tunnel can vary widely from source to source. For example, the definition of a road tunnel in the United Kingdom is defined as "a subsurface highway structure enclosed for a length of 150 metres (490 ft) or more."[1] In the United States, the NFPA definition of a tunnel is "An underground structure with a design length greater than 23 m (75 ft) and a diameter greater than 1,800 millimetres (5.9 ft)."[2]

In the UK, a pedestrian, cycle or animal tunnel beneath a road or railway is called a subway, while an underground railway system is differently named in different cities, the "Underground" or the "Tube" in London, the "Subway" in Glasgow, and the "Metro" in Newcastle. The place where a road, railway, canal or watercourse passes under a footpath, cycleway, or another road or railway is most commonly called a bridge or, if passing under a canal, an aqueduct. Where it is important to stress that it is passing underneath, it may be called an underpass, though the official term when passing under a railway is an underbridge. A longer underpass containing a road, canal or railway is normally called a "tunnel", whether or not it passes under another item of infrastructure. An underpass of any length under a river is also usually called a "tunnel", whatever mode of transport it is for.

In the US, the term "subway" means an underground rapid transit system, and the term pedestrian underpass is used for a passage beneath a barrier. Rail station platforms may be connected by pedestrian tunnels or footbridges.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Tonnel
Alemannisch: Tunnel
العربية: نفق
aragonés: Túnel
asturianu: Túnel
বাংলা: সুড়ঙ্গ
беларуская: Тунэль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тунэль
български: Тунел
bosanski: Tunel
brezhoneg: Riboul
català: Túnel
čeština: Tunel
dansk: Tunnel
Deutsch: Tunnel
eesti: Tunnel
Ελληνικά: Σήραγγα
español: Túnel
Esperanto: Tunelo
euskara: Tunel
فارسی: تونل
français: Tunnel
Gaeilge: Tollán
galego: Túnel
한국어: 터널
հայերեն: Գետնուղի
हिन्दी: सुरंग
hrvatski: Tunel
Ido: Tunelo
Bahasa Indonesia: Terowongan
íslenska: Jarðgöng
עברית: מנהרה
ქართული: გვირაბი
қазақша: Туннель
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tinèl
latviešu: Tunelis
Lëtzebuergesch: Tunnel
lietuvių: Tunelis
magyar: Alagút
македонски: Тунел
മലയാളം: തുരങ്കം
मराठी: भुयार
Bahasa Melayu: Terowong
монгол: Туннел
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဥမင်
Nederlands: Tunnel
日本語: トンネル
norsk: Tunnel
norsk nynorsk: Tunnel
occitan: Tunèl
олык марий: Тоннель
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tunnel
português: Túnel
română: Tunel
русский: Тоннель
Scots: Tunnel
Simple English: Tunnel
slovenčina: Tunel
slovenščina: Predor
کوردی: تونێل
српски / srpski: Тунел
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tunel
suomi: Tunneli
svenska: Tunnel
తెలుగు: సొరంగం
тоҷикӣ: Ағба
Türkçe: Tünel
українська: Тунель
Tiếng Việt: Hầm (giao thông)
粵語: 隧道
中文: 隧道