Trinity

Holy Trinity, depicted by Szymon Czechowicz (1756–1758)

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Latin: Trinitas, lit. 'triad', from Latin: trinus "threefold")[1] holds that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons[2] or hypostases[3]—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons". The three Persons are distinct, yet are one "substance, essence or nature" (homoousios).[4] In this context, a "nature" is what one is, whereas a "person" is who one is.[5][6][7] Sometimes differing views are referred to as nontrinitarian.

Trinitarianism contrasts with positions such as Binitarianism (one deity in two persons, or two deities) and Monarchianism (no pluratity of persons within God), of which Modalistic Monarchianism (one deity revealed in three modes) and Unitarianism (one deity in one person) are subsets. Additionally, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believes the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are three separate beings, two of which possess separate bodies of flesh and bones, while the Holy Ghost has only a body of spirit; and that their unity is not physical, but in purpose.[8]

While scripture does not contain the word Trinity,[9] an indication of three distinct persons can be found in 1 John 5:7 for the validity of which exist a controversy known as Johannine Comma. Early Christian belief in the deity of Jesus Christ existed since the first century in the writings of 20:28), Hebrews 1:8-10), 2 Peter 1:1), as well as in the writings of Ignatius of Antioch,[10][11][12][13][14] a disciple of John who was born about the beginning of the Apostolic age (c. 35). Jesus is also quoted as attesting to being one with and equal with the Father, sharing in the glory of the Father before the world began. (John 8:58, 10:30, 17:5).

Etymology

The word trinity is derived from Latin trinitas, meaning "the number three, a triad, tri". This abstract noun is formed from the adjective trinus (three each, threefold, triple),[15] as the word unitas is the abstract noun formed from unus (one).

The corresponding word in Greek is tριάς, meaning "a set of three" or "the number three".[16] The first recorded use of this Greek word in Christian theology was by Theophilus of Antioch in about the year 170. He wrote:[17][18]

In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity [Τριάδος], of God, and His Word, and His wisdom. And the fourth is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, wisdom, man.[19]

Tertullian, a Latin theologian who wrote in the early 3rd century, is credited as being the first to use the Latin words "Trinity",[20] "person" and "substance"[21] to explain that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are "tres personae, una substantia".[22] While "personae" is often translated as "persons," the Latin word personae is better understood as referring to roles as opposed to individual centers of consciousness.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Drie-eenheid
Alemannisch: Dreifaltigkeit
አማርኛ: ሥላሴ
العربية: ثالوث
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܬܠܝܬܝܘܬܐ
azərbaycanca: Üç üqnum
Bân-lâm-gú: Sam-it
беларуская: Тройца
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Троіца
български: Света Троица
bosanski: Sveto Trojstvo
brezhoneg: Trinded kristen
Чӑвашла: Виçпĕрлев
Cymraeg: Y Drindod
eesti: Kolmainsus
Ελληνικά: Αγία Τριάδα
Esperanto: Sankta Triunuo
euskara: Hirutasun
فارسی: تثلیث
føroyskt: Tríeindin
furlan: Trinitât
Gaeilge: Tríonóid
Gàidhlig: Trianaid
한국어: 삼위일체
हिन्दी: त्रित्व
hrvatski: Trojstvo
Bahasa Indonesia: Tritunggal
interlingua: Trinitate
ქართული: სამება
қазақша: Троица
Kiswahili: Utatu
Latina: Trinitas
latviešu: Trīsvienība
Lëtzebuergesch: Dräifaltegkeet
lietuvių: Trejybė
македонски: Свето Тројство
Malagasy: Trinite
മലയാളം: ത്രിത്വം
मराठी: त्रैक्य
Bahasa Melayu: Tritunggal
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Săng-ôi-ék-tā̤
Nederlands: Drie-eenheid
Nedersaksies: Drijainhaid
日本語: 三位一体
norsk nynorsk: Treeininga
occitan: Trinitat
олык марий: Кумытло
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Muqaddas uchlik
română: Sfânta Treime
rumantsch: Trinitad
Runa Simi: Kimsantin Dyus
русиньскый: Свята Тройця
русский: Троица
shqip: Trinia
Simple English: Trinity
slovenščina: Sveta Trojica
српски / srpski: Свето Тројство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Trojstvo
Tagalog: Trinidad
తెలుగు: త్రిత్వము
Türkçe: Teslis
українська: Трійця
اردو: تثلیث
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئۈچلۈك تەڭرى
Tiếng Việt: Ba Ngôi
吴语: 三位一体
粵語: 三位一體
中文: 三位一體