Trinidad and Tobago

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Motto: Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve
Location of Trinidad and Tobago
Location of Trinidad and Tobago
CapitalPort of Spain
10°40′0″N 61°30′27″W / 10°40′0″N 61°30′27″W / 10.66667; -61.50750
Largest cityChaguanas
10°31′7″N 61°24′37″W / 10°31′7″N 61°24′37″W / 10.51861; -61.41028
Official languagesEnglish[1]
Other languagesSee Languages in Trinidad and Tobago[2]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Paula-Mae Weekes (I)
Keith Rowley (PNM)
Kamla Persad-Bissessar (UNC/PP)
Brigid Annisette-George (PNM)
Christine Kangaloo (PNM)
Ivor Archie
House of Representatives
• Amerindian tribes settle in Trinidad and Tobago
c. 5000 B.C.
• Colonised by Spain
• Spain cedes Trinidad to Great Britain as a result of the Invasion of Trinidad and is formalised at the Treaty of Amiens
1797 and 25 March 1802
• France cedes Tobago to the United Kingdom at the Treaty of Paris, which puts Tobago under British sovereignty for a third time
30 May 1814
• Unification of Trinidad and Tobago
• Part of the West Indies Federation
3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962
• Independence from the United Kingdom
31 August 1962
• Joins CARICOM at the Treaty of Chaguaramas
1 August 1973
• Republic
1 August 1976
(celebrated 24 September)[6][7][8]
• Total
5,131 km2 (1,981 sq mi) (165th)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
1,363,985[9] (151st)
• 2011 census
• Density
264/km2 (683.8/sq mi) (54th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$45.149 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$22.438 billion
• Per capita
Gini (2012)39.0[12]
HDI (2018)Steady 0.799[13]
high · 63th
CurrencyTrinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1 (868)
ISO 3166 codeTT

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (/ (About this soundlisten), -/) is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean.[14][15] Consisting of the main islands Trinidad and Tobago, and numerous much smaller islands, it is situated 130 kilometres (81 miles) south of Grenada and 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) off the coast of northeastern Venezuela.[16] It shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, and Venezuela to the south and west.[17][18]

The island of Trinidad was inhabited for centuries by native Amerindian peoples before becoming a colony in the Spanish Empire, following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498. Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797.[19] During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, British, French, Dutch and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean.[citation needed] Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889.[20] Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962, becoming a republic in 1976.[15][16]

Trinidad and Tobago has the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in the Americas after the United States and Canada.[21] It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy.[citation needed] Unlike most Caribbean nations and territories, which rely heavily on tourism, the Trinidadian economy is primarily industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals;[22] much of the nation's wealth is derived from its large reserves of oil and natural gas.[23][24]

Trinidad and Tobago is well known for its African and Indian cultures, reflected in its large and famous Carnival and Diwali celebrations, as well being the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, and music styles such as calypso, soca, rapso, parang, chutney, and chutney soca.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]


Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê.[citation needed] However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird (tukusi or tucuchi being suggested as the correct word) and some claiming that kairi, or iere, simply means island.[clarification needed][33][citation needed] Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad" ("The Island of the Trinity"), fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration.[34] Tobago's cigar-like shape, or the use of tobacco by the native people, may have given it its Spanish name (cabaco, tavaco, tobacco) and possibly some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra (black conch) and Urupaina (big snail),[33] although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/.[citation needed]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Trinidad und Tobago
azərbaycanca: Trinidad və Tobaqo
Bân-lâm-gú: Trinidad kap Tobago
беларуская: Трынідад і Табага
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Трынідад і Табага
Bikol Central: Trinidad asin Tobago
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Trinidad y Tobago
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޓުރިނިޑާޑް ޓޮބޭގޯ
dolnoserbski: Trinidad a Tobago
estremeñu: Triniá i Tobagu
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: त्रिनिदाद आणि टोबॅगो
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Trinidad lâu Tobago
hornjoserbsce: Trinidad a Tobago
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ত্রিনিদাদ বারো টোবাগো
Bahasa Indonesia: Trinidad dan Tobago
Interlingue: Trinidad e Tobago
Kinyarwanda: Tirinida na Tobago
Kreyòl ayisyen: Trinidad ak Tobago
لۊری شومالی: ترینیداد و توباگو
Lëtzebuergesch: Trinidad an Tobago
Lingua Franca Nova: Trinidad e Tobago
Livvinkarjala: Trinidad da Tobago
македонски: Тринидад и Тобаго
Bahasa Melayu: Trinidad dan Tobago
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Trinidad gâe̤ng Tobago
Nederlands: Trinidad en Tobago
Nordfriisk: Trinidad an Tobago
Norfuk / Pitkern: Trinidad a' Tobago
norsk nynorsk: Trinidad og Tobago
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Trinidad va Tobago
Papiamentu: Trinidad i Tobago
Piemontèis: Trinidad e Tobago
Plattdüütsch: Trinidad un Tobago
português: Trindade e Tobago
Qaraqalpaqsha: Trinidad ha'm Tobago
qırımtatarca: Trinidad ve Tobago
Gagana Samoa: Trindad ma Tobacco
Simple English: Trinidad and Tobago
slovenčina: Trinidad a Tobago
slovenščina: Trinidad in Tobago
српски / srpski: Тринидад и Тобаго
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Trinidad i Tobago
татарча/tatarça: Тринидад һәм Тобаго
українська: Тринідад і Тобаго
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ترىنىداد ۋە توباگو
vepsän kel’: Trinidad da Tobago
Tiếng Việt: Trinidad và Tobago
粵語: 千里達
žemaitėška: Trinidads ėr Tuobags
kriyòl gwiyannen: Trinité-é-Tobago