Trinidad and Tobago

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Motto: Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve [1]
Location of Trinidad and Tobago
Capital Port of Spain
10°40′N 61°31′W / 10°40′N 61°31′W / 10.667; -61.517
Largest city Chaguanas [2]
10°30′N 61°23′W / 10°30′N 61°23′W / 10.500; -61.383
Official languages English
Ethnic groups (2011 [3])
Religion (2011 [3] [4])
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
•  President
Anthony Carmona
Keith Rowley
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Brigid Annisette-George
Christine Kangaloo
Ivor Archie
Legislature Parliament
House of Representatives
•  Trinidad and Tobago (separately) discovered by the Spanish
• Colonized by the Spanish
•  Spain cedes Trinidad and Tobago (as separate colonies) to the United Kingdom at the Treaty of Amiens
25 March 1802
• Unification of Trinidad and Tobago
• Part of the West Indies Federation
3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962
31 August 1962
• Joins CARICOM at the Treaty of Chaguaramas
1 August 1973
• Republic
1 August 1976
• Total
5,131 km2 (1,981 sq mi) ( 165th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
1,353,895 [5] ( 152)
• 2011 census
1,328,019 [6]
• Density
254.4/km2 (658.9/sq mi)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$44.654 billion [7] ( 110th)
• Per capita
$32,520 [7] ( 36th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$21.748 billion [7]
• Per capita
$15,838 [7]
Gini (2012) 39.0 [8]
HDI (2016) Increase 0.780 [9]
high ·  65th
Currency Trinidad and Tobago dollar ( TTD)
Time zone Atlantic Standard Time ( UTC-4)
• Summer ( DST)
not observed ( UTC-4)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +1 (868)
ISO 3166 code TT
Internet TLD .tt
  1. Holiday celebrated on 24 September.

Trinidad and Tobago ( / ( About this sound  listen), -/), [10] officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres (81 miles) south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) off the coast of northeastern Venezuela. It shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, and Venezuela to the south and west. [11] [12]

The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. [13] During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, British, French, Dutch and Courlander colonizers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. [14] Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.

As of 2015, Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in the Americas after the United States and Canada. [15] It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the country's economy is primarily industrial [16] with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. The country's wealth is attributed to its large reserves and exploitation of oil and natural gas. [17] [18]

Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival celebration and as the birthplace of steelpan drums, the limbo, and music styles such as calypso, soca, parang, chutney, cariso, extempo, kaiso, pichakaree, and rapso. It is also famous for its Indo-Caribbean cuisine, such as a curry chickpea flatbread sandwich known as doubles. [19]


Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, Boomert claims that neither cairi nor caeri means hummingbird and tukusi or tucuchi does.[ clarification needed] [20] Others have reported that kairi and iere simply mean island.[ citation needed] Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad" ("The Island of the Trinity"), fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. [21] Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name (cabaco, tavaco, tobacco) and possibly its Amerindian names of Aloubaéra (black conch) and Urupaina (big snail), [20] although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, sago, and "may go".[ citation needed]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Trinidad und Tobago
azərbaycanca: Trinidad və Tobaqo
Bân-lâm-gú: Trinidad kap Tobago
беларуская: Трынідад і Табага
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Трынідад і Табага
Bikol Central: Trinidad asin Tobago
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Trinidad y Tobago
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޓުރިނިޑާޑް ޓޮބޭގޯ
dolnoserbski: Trinidad a Tobago
estremeñu: Triniá i Tobagu
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: त्रिनिदाद आणि टोबॅगो
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Trinidad lâu Tobago
hornjoserbsce: Trinidad a Tobago
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ত্রিনিদাদ বারো টোবাগো
Bahasa Indonesia: Trinidad dan Tobago
Interlingue: Trinidad e Tobago
Kinyarwanda: Tirinida na Tobago
Kreyòl ayisyen: Trinidad ak Tobago
لۊری شومالی: تئرینیداد و توباگو
Livvinkarjala: Trinidad da Tobago
македонски: Тринидад и Тобаго
Bahasa Melayu: Trinidad dan Tobago
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Trinidad gâe̤ng Tobago
Nederlands: Trinidad en Tobago
Nordfriisk: Trinidad an Tobago
Norfuk / Pitkern: Trinidad a' Tobago
norsk nynorsk: Trinidad og Tobago
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Trinidad va Tobago
Papiamentu: Trinidad i Tobago
Piemontèis: Trinidad e Tobago
Plattdüütsch: Trinidad un Tobago
português: Trindade e Tobago
Qaraqalpaqsha: Trinidad ha'm Tobago
qırımtatarca: Trinidad ve Tobago
Gagana Samoa: Trindad ma Tobacco
Simple English: Trinidad and Tobago
slovenčina: Trinidad a Tobago
slovenščina: Trinidad in Tobago
српски / srpski: Тринидад и Тобаго
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Trinidad i Tobago
татарча/tatarça: Тринидад һәм Тобаго
українська: Тринідад і Тобаго
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ترىنىداد ۋە توباگو
vepsän kel’: Trinidad da Tobago
Tiếng Việt: Trinidad và Tobago
粵語: 千里達
žemaitėška: Trinidads ėr Tuobags