Elevation of the chalice after the consecration during a Solemn Mass
The Tridentine Mass, also known as Traditional Latin Mass (often abbreviated in the colloquial TLM), or Usus Antiquior, is the Roman RiteMass which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962. The most widely used Mass liturgy in the world from its issuance in 1570 until the introduction of the Mass of Paul VI in 1969, it is celebrated in ecclesiastical Latin.
The edition promulgated by Pope John XXIII in 1962 (the last to bear the indication ex decreto Sacrosancti Concilii Tridentini restitutum) and Mass celebrated in accordance with it are described in the 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum as an authorized form of the Church's liturgy, and this form of the Tridentine Mass is often spoken of as the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite, the EF Mass.
"Tridentine" is derived from the LatinTridentinus, "related to the city of Tridentum" (modern-day Trent, Italy), where the Council of Trent was held. In response to a decision of that council,Pope Pius V promulgated the 1570 Roman Missal, making it mandatory throughout the Latin Church, except in places and religious orders with missals from before 1370. Although the Tridentine Mass is often described as the Latin Mass, the Mass of Paul VI that replaced it as the ordinary form of the Roman Rite has its official text in Latin and is sometimes celebrated in that language.
In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprioSummorum Pontificum, accompanied by a letter to the world's bishops, authorizing use of the 1962 Tridentine Mass by all Latin RiteCatholic priests in Masses celebrated without the people. These Masses "may — observing all the norms of law — also be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, ask to be admitted". Permission for competent priests to use the Tridentine Mass as parish liturgies may be given by the pastor or rector.
Benedict stated that the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal is to be considered an "extraordinary form" (forma extraordinaria) of the Roman Rite, of which the 1970 Mass of Paul VI is the ordinary, normal or standard form. Since that is the only authorized extraordinary form, some refer to the 1962 Tridentine Mass as "the extraordinary form" of the Mass. The 1962 Tridentine Mass is sometimes referred to as the "usus antiquior" (older use) or "forma antiquior" (older form), to differentiate it from the Mass of Paul VI, again in the sense of being the only one of the older forms for which authorization has been granted.
In most countries, the language used for celebrating the Tridentine Mass was and is Latin. However, in Dalmatia and parts of Istria in Croatia, the liturgy was celebrated in Old Church Slavonic, and authorisation for use of this language was extended to some other Slavic regions between 1886 and 1935.
Some Western Rite Orthodox Christians, particularly in the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, use the Tridentine Mass in the vernacular with minor alterations under the title of the "Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory".
Most Old Catholics use the Tridentine Mass, either in the vernacular or in Latin.