Transport

French National Police use several modes of transport, each with its distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. In other words the action of transportation is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A to the Point B. Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.

Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations, including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.

Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, helicopters, watercraft, spacecraft and aircraft.

Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose, including financing, legalities, and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.

Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, or private. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is heavily subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl.

History

Bronocice pot with the earliest known image of a wheeled vehicle in the world, found in Poland
A bullock team hauling wool in Australia

Humans' first means of transport involved walking, running and swimming. The domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.

The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses (domesticated in the 4th or the 3rd millennium BCE), oxen (from about 8000 BCE)[1] or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry. The medieval Caliphate later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two. The importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore, often at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, and production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible.

The Wright brothers' first flight in 1903

The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport. With telegraphy, communication became instant and independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine, closely followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased rapidly, allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources. The 19th century also saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport.

With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, and mechanical private transport originated. The first "modern" highways were constructed during the 19th century[citation needed] with macadam. Later, tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, and after World War I (1914–1918) aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances.[2]

After World War II (1939–1945) the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.[3] Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization.[4] International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways, rail and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from the airlines.[3]

Early in U.S. history,[when?] private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, bridges, canals, railroads, roads, and tunnels. Most such transportation infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. Recently,[when?] however, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some[quantify] ground and adherents.[5]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Vervoer
Alemannisch: Verkehr
አማርኛ: ማጓጓዝ
Аҧсшәа: Атранспорт
العربية: نقل
aragonés: Transporte
asturianu: Tresporte
azərbaycanca: Nəqliyyat
تۆرکجه: نقلیات
bamanankan: Dònìni
বাংলা: পরিবহন
Bân-lâm-gú: Kau-thong
Basa Banyumasan: Angkutan
башҡортса: Транспорт
беларуская: Транспарт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Транспарт
भोजपुरी: परिवहन
български: Транспорт
bosanski: Transport
brezhoneg: Treuzdougerezh
català: Transport
Чӑвашла: Çул-йĕр
čeština: Doprava
Cymraeg: Cludiant
dansk: Transport
Deutsch: Verkehr
eesti: Transport
Ελληνικά: Μεταφορές
español: Transporte
Esperanto: Transporto
euskara: Garraio
فارسی: ترابری
Fiji Hindi: Transport
français: Transport
Frysk: Transport
furlan: Traspuart
Gaeilge: Iompar
Gaelg: Arraghey
Gàidhlig: Giùlan
galego: Transporte
贛語: 運輸
한국어: 교통
հայերեն: Տրանսպորտ
हिन्दी: परिवहन
hrvatski: Promet
Bahasa Indonesia: Transportasi
interlingua: Transporto
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔾᔪᑎᑦ
íslenska: Samgöngur
italiano: Trasporto
עברית: תחבורה
Basa Jawa: Angkudan
kalaallisut: Angallassissutit
ქართული: ტრანსპორტი
қазақша: Көлік
Kiswahili: Usafiri
Kreyòl ayisyen: Transpò
Кыргызча: Транспорт
Ladino: Transporte
Latina: Vectura
latviešu: Transports
Lëtzebuergesch: Transport
lietuvių: Transportas
Limburgs: Verveur
Lingua Franca Nova: Transporta
magyar: Közlekedés
македонски: Превоз
Malagasy: Fitaterana
മലയാളം: ഗതാഗതം
मराठी: दळणवळण
Bahasa Melayu: Pengangkutan
Mirandés: Trasporte
Nāhuatl: Huaznenqui
Nederlands: Vervoer
Nedersaksies: Vervoor
日本語: 交通
Napulitano: Traspuorte
нохчийн: Транспорт
Nordfriisk: Ferkiar
Norfuk / Pitkern: Transport
norsk: Transport
norsk nynorsk: Transport
Nouormand: Transport
occitan: Transpòrt
олык марий: Транспорт
Oromoo: Geejjiba
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Transport
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਢੋਆ-ਢੁਆਈ
پنجابی: ٹرانسپورٹ
Patois: Chanspuot
polski: Transport
português: Transporte
română: Transport
Runa Simi: Apaykachay
русиньскый: Транспорт
русский: Транспорт
संस्कृतम्: परिवहनम्
Scots: Transport
Seeltersk: Ferkier
shqip: Transporti
sicilianu: Trasporti
Simple English: Transport
slovenčina: Doprava
slovenščina: Transport
کوردی: گواستنەوە
српски / srpski: Транспорт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Transport
Basa Sunda: Angkutan
suomi: Liikenne
svenska: Transport
татарча/tatarça: Транспорт
тоҷикӣ: Нақлиёт
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎡᏓᏍᏙᏗ
Türkçe: Ulaşım
українська: Транспорт
vèneto: Trasporti
Tiếng Việt: Vận tải
Võro: Transport
Winaray: Panakayan
吴语: 运输
Xitsonga: Vutleketli
ייִדיש: טראנספארט
粵語: 運輸
žemaitėška: Transpuorts
中文: 运输