Transkei

Republic of Transkei
iRiphabliki yeTranskei
Bantustan
(nominal parliamentary democracy)
1976–1994
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Motto
iMbumba yaManyama
Xhosa: Unity is Strength
Anthem
Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika
Xhosa: God Bless Africa
Location of Transkei in Southern Africa (1976-1994)
Capital Umtata (now Mthatha)
Languages Xhosa (official)
Sesotho and English translations required for laws to come into effect
Afrikaans allowed in administration and judiciary¹
Political structure Bantustan
Leader
 •  1976-1986 Chief Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima
(Nominal Parliamentary Democracy, effective One-Party-Rule)
 •  1987-1994 Bantu Holomisa
( Military Rule)
Legislature Parliament
 •  Parliament President plus National Assembly
(Immune to judicial review
 •  National Assembly Paramount Chiefs
70 District Chiefs
75 elected MPs³
History
 •  Self-government 30 May 1963
 •  Nominal Independence 26 Oct 1976
 •  Break of diplomatic ties 1978
 •  Coup d'etat 1987
 •  foiled Coup d'etat 1990
 •  Dissolution 27 April 1994
Area
 •  1980 [1] 43,798 km2 (16,911 sq mi)
Population
 •  1980 [1] est. 2,323,650 
     Density 53/km2 (137/sq mi)
Currency South African Rand
Preceded by
Succeeded by
South Africa
South Africa
1. Constitution of the Republic of Transkei 1976, Chapter 3, 16/Chapter 5, 41
2. Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Chapter 5, 24(4): "No court of law shall be competent to inquire into or to pronounce upon the validity of any Act."
3. 28 electoral divisions; number of MPs per division in proportion to number of registered voters per division; at least one MP each

The Transkei ( z-/, meaning the area beyond [the river] Kei), officially the Republic of Transkei ( Xhosa: iRiphabliki yeTranskei), was a Bantustan—an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity—and nominal parliamentary democracy in the southeastern region of South Africa. Its capital was Umtata, [2] which was renamed Mthatha in 2004.

Transkei represented a significant precedent and historic turning point in South Africa's policy of apartheid and "separate development"; it was the first of four territories to be declared independent of South Africa. Throughout its existence, it remained an internationally unrecognised, diplomatically isolated, politically unstable de facto one-party state, which at one point broke relations with South Africa, the only country that acknowledged it as a legal entity. In 1994, it was reintegrated into its larger neighbour and became part of the Eastern Cape province.

History

Establishment

Internal borders, Transkei in red

The South African government set up the area as one of the two homelands for Xhosa-speaking people in Cape Province, the other being Ciskei; it was given nominal autonomy in 1963. Although the first election was contested and won by the Democratic Party, whose founder Chief Victor Poto was opposed to the notion of Bantustan independence, [3] the government was formed by the Transkei National Independence Party. Of the 109 members in the regional parliament, only 45 were elected; the remaining seats held by ex officio chiefs. [4]

The entity became a nominally independent state in 1976 with its capital at Umtata (now Mthatha), although it was recognised only by South Africa and later by the other nominally independent republics within the TBVC-system. Chief Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima was Transkei's Prime Minister until 1979, when he assumed the office of President, a position he held until 1986.

International reaction

South African prime minister B. J. Vorster justified the declaration of Transkei as an independent republic by referring to "the right of every people to have full control over its own affairs" and wished "Transkei and its leaders God's richest blessings on the road ahead." [5]

My heritage commands me in the name of [Xhosa] nationhood to sacrifice the best of my abilities to the advancement of my own nation in its own country […].
- Kaiser Matanzima [6]
The General Assembly rejects the declaration of "independence" of the Transkei and declares it invalid.
- United Nations General Assembly [7]

A press release by the African National Congress at the time rejected the Transkei's independence and condemned it as "designed to consolidate the inhuman policies of apartheid". [8] During its thirty-first session, in resolution A/RES/31/6 A, the General Assembly of the United Nations referred to Transkei's "sham independence" as "invalid," re-iterated its labeling of South Africa as a "racist régime," and called upon "all [g]overnments to deny any form of recognition to the so-called independent Transkei." [7] An article published in Time Magazine opined that though Transkei declared independence theoretically as a "free Black state", Matanzima ruled as the dictator of a one-party state. He banned local opposition parties and bought farmlands for himself and his family offered by the South African government at subsidised prices. [9]

Matanzima published Independence my Way in 1976, a book in which he argued that true liberation could only be gained through a confederation of black states; he described Transkei as a positive precedent and maintained that the liberation struggle chosen by the ANC would not be successful. [10]

The United Nations Security Council supported moves not to recognise Transkei, and in Resolution 402 (1976) condemned moves by South Africa to pressure Lesotho to recognise Transkei by closing its borders with the country.

Troubled existence

Throughout its existence, Transkei's economy remained dependent on that of its larger neighbour, with the local population being recruited as workers into South Africa's Rand mines. [11]

Because of a territorial dispute, [12] Matanzima announced on 10 April 1978 that Transkei would break all diplomatic ties with South Africa, [13] including a unilateral withdrawal from the non-aggression pact between the two governments, and ordered that all South African Defence Force members seconded to the Transkei Army should leave. This created the unique situation of a country refusing to deal with the only internationally recognised nation it was recognised by. Matanzima soon backed down in the face of Transkei's dependence on South African economic aid.

During his reign, Matanzima arrested state officials and journalists at will; in late 1979, he detained the head of the newly formed Democratic Progressive Party, Sabata Dalindyebo, king of the Thembu people and vocal opponent of apartheid, for violating the dignity and injuring the reputation of the president. [14] Dalindyebo went into exile in Zambia, a move that marked the end of official opposition politics in Transkei, [3] and in the 1981 election, the ruling Transkei National Independence Party was re-elected, gaining 100% of all open seats. [15]

On 20 February 1986, faced with South African evidence of corruption, Matanzima was forced to retire as President. He was succeeded by his brother George. Kaiser Matanzima was still described as Transkei's effective leader for a time, [16] but soon the two fell out and Kaiser was temporarily detained in the Transkei gaols in 1987; upon release, he was restricted to Qamata.

General Bantu Holomisa of the Transkei Defence Force forced the resignation and exile of Prime Minister George Matanzima in October 1987 [17] [18] and then overthrew Matanzima's successor, Prime Minister Stella Sigcau [19] in December 1987. Holomisa became the Head of State, [20] and the Transkei was from that point onwards effectively in (often uneasy) alliance with the African National Congress and provided a relatively safe area for the ANC's activities. In 1990, Holomisa himself evaded a failed attempt to be ousted from his post, and when asked about the fate of his opponents, he claimed that they had died in the ensuing battles with TDF soldiers. [21] It was later found that those deemed responsible for the foiled coup had only suffered minor injuries, but were subsequently executed without trial. [22]

Dissolution

The Transkei government was a participant in the Codesa negotiations for a new South Africa. The territory was reincorporated into South Africa on 27 April 1994, and the area became part of the Eastern Cape province.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Transkei
تۆرکجه: ترانسکی
башҡортса: Транскей
català: Transkei
čeština: Transkei
dansk: Transkei
Deutsch: Transkei
español: Transkei
Esperanto: Transkejo
euskara: Transkei
فارسی: ترانسکی
français: Transkei
한국어: 트란스케이
Bahasa Indonesia: Transkei
isiXhosa: I-Transkei
italiano: Transkei
עברית: טרנסקאי
Kiswahili: Transkei
Bahasa Melayu: Transkei
Nederlands: Transkei
norsk: Transkei
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟ੍ਰਾਂਸਕੇਈ
polski: Transkei
português: Transkei
русский: Транскей
Simple English: Transkei
српски / srpski: Транскеј
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Transkei
suomi: Transkei
svenska: Transkei
Türkçe: Transkei
українська: Транскей
Yorùbá: Transkei
中文: 特蘭斯凱