Tomato

Tomato
Bright red tomato and cross section02.jpg
Cross-section and intact view of a hothouse tomato grown in a greenhouse
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Solanales
Family:Solanaceae
Genus:Solanum
Species:S. lycopersicum
Binomial name
Solanum lycopersicum
Synonyms

Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H. Karst.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.[1]

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, berry of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum,[2][1] commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America.[2][3] The Nahuatl (Aztec language) word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived.[3][4] Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico.[2][5] The Spanish discovered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century.[2]

The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks. While tomatoes are fruitsbotanically classified as berries – they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish.[3]

Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are widely grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height. They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and typically needs support.[2] Indeterminate tomato plants are perennials in their native habitat, but are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once. The size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches (1.3–10.2 cm) in width.[2]

Names

Tomatoes

Etymology

The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl [ˈtomat͡ɬ], meaning "the swelling fruit".[4] The native Mexican tomatillo is tomate (in Nahuatl: tomātl About this sound pronunciation , meaning "fat water" or "fat thing").[6] When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger, sweeter, and red, they called the new species xitomatl (or jitomates) (pronounced [ʃiːˈtomatɬ]),[2] ("plump with navel" or "fat water with navel"). The scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted literally from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum.

Pronunciation

The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are / (usual in American English) and / (usual in British English).[7] The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" ("You like / and I like / / You like / and I like /") and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.[citation needed] In this capacity, it has even become an American and British slang term: saying "/" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me".[citation needed]

Fruit versus vegetable

Tomatoes are considered a fruit or vegetable depending on context. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.[3]
Tomatoes plain and sliced

Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits; it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, rather than as a dessert. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; bell peppers, cucumbers, green beans, eggplants, avocados, and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) are all botanically fruit, yet cooked as vegetables. This has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U.S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Hedden (149 U.S. 304)). The holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Бэдрэжан
Afrikaans: Tamatie
አማርኛ: ቲማቲም
Ænglisc: Wulfpersoc
Аҧсшәа: Атомат
العربية: طماطم
armãneashti: Dumatâ
asturianu: Tomate
Atikamekw: Ritamate
Avañe'ẽ: Tomáte
azərbaycanca: Pomidor
বাংলা: টমেটো
Bahasa Banjar: Balinjan
Bân-lâm-gú: Kam-á-bi̍t
башҡортса: Помидор
беларуская: Тамат звычайны
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Памідоры
भोजपुरी: टमाटर
Bikol Central: Kamatis
български: Домат
Boarisch: Paradeiser
བོད་ཡིག: ལྡུམ་སྒོང་།
bosanski: Paradajz
brezhoneg: Tomatez
català: Tomàquet
čeština: Rajče jedlé
chiShona: Madomasi
chiTumbuka: Mpwetekele
corsu: Pumata
Cymraeg: Tomato
dansk: Tomat
Deutsch: Tomate
ދިވެހިބަސް: ވިލާތު ބަށި
Diné bizaad: Chʼil łichxíʼí
dolnoserbski: Tomata
eesti: Tomat
Ελληνικά: Τομάτα
Esperanto: Tomato
euskara: Tomate
français: Tomate
Gaeilge: Tráta
Gaelg: Traase
Gàidhlig: Tomàto
galego: Tomate
贛語: 番茄
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thó-mâ-tô
한국어: 토마토
Hausa: Tumatir
Hawaiʻi: ʻōhiʻa lomi
հայերեն: Լոլիկ
हिन्दी: टमाटर
hornjoserbsce: Tomata
hrvatski: Rajčica
Ilokano: Kamatis
Bahasa Indonesia: Tomat
interlingua: Tomatiero
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᒥᓗᑦᓱᑳᒐᖅ
isiZulu: Utamatisi
íslenska: Tómatur
עברית: עגבנייה
Basa Jawa: Tomat
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟೊಮೇಟೊ
Kapampangan: Kamatis
қазақша: Қызанақ
Kinyarwanda: Inyanya
Kirundi: Tomati
Kiswahili: Mnyanya
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tomat
kurdî: Firengî
Кыргызча: Помидор
кырык мары: Помидор
Ladino: Tomat
лакку: Помидор
latviešu: Tomāts
lietuvių: Pomidoras
lingála: Tomáti
македонски: Домат
Malagasy: Voatabia
മലയാളം: തക്കാളി
मराठी: टोमॅटो
მარგალური: პამინდორი
مصرى: اوطه
Bahasa Melayu: Tomato
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Huăng-kê
мокшень: Помидор
монгол: Улаан лооль
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ခရမ်းချဉ်ပင်
Nāhuatl: Xītomatl
Nederlands: Tomaat
नेपाली: गोलभेडा
日本語: トマト
Napulitano: Pummarola
нохчийн: Бадарж
Nordfriisk: Tomoot
norsk: Tomat
norsk nynorsk: Tomat
occitan: Tomata
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Pomidor
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟਮਾਟਰ
پنجابی: ٹماٹر
português: Tomate
Qaraqalpaqsha: Pomidor
română: Roșie
Runa Simi: Chilltu
русский: Томат
संस्कृतम्: वार्तकी
sardu: Tamata
Scots: Tomata
Seeltersk: Tomoate
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tamati
shqip: Domatja
sicilianu: Pumadoru
සිංහල: තක්කාලි
Simple English: Tomato
سنڌي: ٽماٽو
slovenčina: Rajčiak jedlý
slovenščina: Paradižnik
ślůnski: Tůmata
Soomaaliga: Yaanyo
کوردی: تەماتە
српски / srpski: Парадајз
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rajčica
Basa Sunda: Tomat
suomi: Tomaatti
svenska: Tomat
Tagalog: Kamatis
தமிழ்: தக்காளி
తెలుగు: టమాటో
lea faka-Tonga: Temata
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏔᎹᏟ
ತುಳು: ಟೊಮೆಟೊ
Türkçe: Domates
тыва дыл: Помидор
удмурт: Помидор
українська: Помідор
اردو: ٹماٹر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پەمىدۇر
Vahcuengh: Makyungz
Tiếng Việt: Cà chua
Volapük: Tomat
West-Vlams: Tomatte
Winaray: Kamatis
ייִדיש: טאמאטע
Yorùbá: Tòmátò
粵語: 番茄
Zazaki: Şamıke
žemaitėška: Pamėduors
中文: 番茄
Kabɩyɛ: Tɩmaatɩ