Tizona

The Tizona sword on exhibit in the Museo del Ejército (Salón de Reinos) in Madrid (before 2007).

Tizona (also Tizón) is the name of one of the swords carried by Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, El Cid according to the Cantar de Mio Cid. The name of the second sword of El Cid is Colada.

A sword identified as Tizona was given by Ferdinand II of Aragon to Pedro de Peralta, count of Santisteban de Lerín in c. 1470. This sword was long kept in Marcilla Castle, later in the Army Museum in Madrid and since 2007 in the Museo de Burgos.

Name

The name used in the Cantar de Mio Cid is Tizón. The form Tizona has been in use since the late medieval period (14th century). The blade inscription on the Marcilla sword, presumably of the 13th or 14th century, has the form TIZONA.

The older form of the name, tizón, is a word for "firebrand" (leño encendido, from Latin titionem). Sebastián de Covarrubias (1611) recognizes this as the plausible origin of the name Tizona, but also adduces possible derivation from τυχωνα, the name of the lance of Severus Alexander, or from τύχη "fortuna".[1]

James I of Aragon (r. 1213–1276) according to the Llibre dels fets had a sword named Tisó. The description of this sword makes no reference to El Cid, suggesting that tizon "firebrand" was in use as a generic term for "sword" (c.f. the same use of English brand). The extended (feminine) form tizona, by reference to El Cid's sword, could later also stand in as a poetic synonym of "sword" in general.[2]

Other Languages
Deutsch: Tizona
español: Tizona
euskara: Tizona
français: Tizona
Latina: Tizona
日本語: ティソーナ
polski: Tizona
русский: Тисона