Tissue (biology)

Cross section of sclerenchyma fibers in plant ground tissue.
Microscopic view of a histologic specimen of human lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.

The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave".

The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis.

Animal tissues

PAS diastase showing the fungus Histoplasma.

Animal tissues are grouped into four basic types: connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial. Collections of tissues joined in structural units to serve a common function compose organs. While all animals can generally be considered to contain the four tissue types, the manifestation of these tissues can differ depending on the type of organism. For example, the origin of the cells comprising a particular tissue type may differ developmentally for different classifications of animals.

The epithelium in all birds and animals is derived from the ectoderm and endoderm with a small contribution from the mesoderm, forming the endothelium, a specialized type of epithelium that composes the vasculature. By contrast, a true epithelial tissue is present only in a single layer of cells held together via occluding junctions called tight junctions, to create a selectively permeable barrier. This tissue covers all organismal surfaces that come in contact with the external environment such as the skin, the airways, and the digestive tract. It serves functions of protection, secretion, and absorption, and is separated from other tissues below by a basal lamina.

Connective tissue

Connective tissues are fibrous tissues. They are made up of cells separated by non-living material, which is called an extracellular matrix. This matrix can be liquid or rigid. For example, blood contains plasma as its matrix and bone's matrix is rigid. Connective tissue gives shape to organs and holds them in place. Blood, bone, tendon, ligament, adipose and areolar tissues are examples of connective tissues. One method of classifying connective tissues is to divide them into three types: fibrous connective tissue, skeletal connective tissue, and fluid connective tissue.

Muscular tissue

Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs. Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, found in the inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, typically attached to bones, which generate gross movement; and cardiac muscle, found in the heart where it contracts to pump blood throughout an organism.

Nervous tissue

Cells comprising the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as nervous (or neural) tissue. In the central nervous system, neural tissues form the brain and spinal cord. In the peripheral nervous system, neural tissues forms the cranial nerves and spinal nerves, inclusive of the motor neurons.

Epithelial tissue

The epithelial tissues are formed by cells that cover the organ surfaces such as the surface of skin, the airways, the reproductive tract, and the inner lining of the digestive tract. The cells comprising an epithelial layer are linked via semi-permeable, tight junctions; hence, this tissue provides a barrier between the external environment and the organ it covers. In addition to this protective function, epithelial tissue may also be specialized to function in secretion, excretion and absorption. Epithelial tissue helps to protect organs from microorganisms, injury, and fluid loss.

Functions of epithelial tissue:

  • The cells of the body's surface form the outer layer of skin.
  • Inside the body, epithelial cells form the lining of the mouth and alimentary canal and protect these organs.
  • Epithelial tissues help in absorption of water and nutrients.
  • Epithelial tissues help in elimination of waste.
  • Epithelial tissues secrete enzymes and/or hormones in the form of glands.

There are many kinds of epithelium, and nomenclature is somewhat variable. Most classification schemes combine a description of the cell-shape in the upper layer of the epithelium with a word denoting the number of layers: either simple (one layer of cells) or stratified (multiple layers of cells). However, other cellular features, such as cilia may also be described in the classification system. Some common kinds of epithelium are listed below:

  • Simple squamous epithelium
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • Simple cuboidal epithelium
  • Transitional epithelium
  • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (also known as Ciliated columnar epithelium)
  • Columnar epithelium
  • Glandular epithelium
  • Ciliated columnar epithelium
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Weefsel
Alemannisch: Gewebe (Biologie)
العربية: نسيج حيوي
azərbaycanca: Toxuma
تۆرکجه: توخوما
беларуская: Тканка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тканка
български: Тъканни клетки
bosanski: Tkivo
Cebuano: Tisyu
čeština: Tkáň
Cymraeg: Meinwe
davvisámegiella: Gođus
eesti: Kude
Esperanto: Histo
français: Tissu biologique
Gaeilge: Fíochán
Հայերեն: Հյուսվածք
हिन्दी: ऊतक
hrvatski: Tkivo
Ido: Tisuo
Bahasa Indonesia: Jaringan
interlingua: Texito (biologia)
isiXhosa: I-tissue
íslenska: Vefur
עברית: רקמת תאים
қазақша: Ұлпа
Kiswahili: Tishu
kurdî: Tevinek
latviešu: Audi
Lëtzebuergesch: Biologeschen Tissu
македонски: Ткиво
Bahasa Melayu: Tisu biologi
монгол: Эд (биологи)
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တစ်ရှူး
Nāhuatl: Tzayanatl
Nederlands: Weefsel (biologie)
नेपाल भाषा: तन्तु
norsk nynorsk: Cellevev
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Toʻqima
پښتو: ووب
Plattdüütsch: Geweev (Biologie)
polski: Tkanka
português: Tecido
Simple English: Tissue
slovenčina: Tkanivo
slovenščina: Tkivo
српски / srpski: Ткиво (биологија)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tkivo
suomi: Kudos
svenska: Vävnad
Tagalog: Tisyu
தமிழ்: இழையம்
татарча/tatarça: Биологик тукыма
తెలుగు: కణజాలము
тоҷикӣ: Бофта
Türkçe: Doku
українська: Тканина (біологія)
اردو: نسیج
vepsän kel’: Kudeh
Tiếng Việt:
粵語: 生物組織