A timocracy (from Greek τιμή timē, "price, worth" and -κρατία -kratia, "rule")[1]in Aristotle's Politics is a state where only property owners may participate in government. The more extreme forms of timocracy, where power derives entirely from wealth with no regard for social or civic responsibility, may shift in their form and become a plutocracy where the wealthy and powerful use their power to increase their wealth.

In Plato's Politics, a state in which Love of wealth, Property and power are the Guiding principles of the rulers[2].

Timocracy and property

Solon introduced the ideas of timokratia as a graded oligarchy in his Solonian Constitution for Athens in the early 6th century BC. His was the first known deliberately implemented form of timocracy, allocating political rights and economic responsibility depending on membership of one of four tiers of the population. Solon defined these tiers by measuring how many bushels of produce each man could produce in a year, namely:

  • Pentacosiomedimni – "Men of the 500 bushel", those who produced 500 bushels of produce per year, could serve as generals in the army
  • Hippeis – Knights, those who could equip themselves and one cavalry horse for war, valued at 300 bushels per year
  • Zeugitae – Tillers, owners of at least one pair of beasts of burden, valued at 200 bushels per year, could serve as Hoplites
  • Thetes – Manual laborers

N. G. L. Hammond supposes Solon instituted a graduated tax upon the upper classes, levied in a ratio of 6:3:1, with the lowest class of thetes paying nothing in taxes but remaining ineligible for elected office.

Aristotle later wrote in his Book 8, Chapter 10) about three "true political forms" for a state, each of which could appear in corrupt form, becoming one of three negative forms. Aristotle describes timocracy in the sense of rule by property-owners: it comprised one of his true political forms. Aristotelian timocracy approximated to the constitution of Athens, although Athens exemplified the corrupted version of this form, described as democracy.

Other Languages
беларуская: Тымакратыя
български: Тимокрация
català: Timocràcia
čeština: Timokracie
dansk: Timokrati
Deutsch: Timokratie
español: Timocracia
فارسی: تیموکراسی
français: Timocratie
Bahasa Indonesia: Timokrasi
italiano: Timocrazia
עברית: טימוקרטיה
latviešu: Timokrātija
magyar: Timokrácia
Nederlands: Timocratie
norsk: Timokrati
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਿਲਖਰਾਜ
polski: Timokracja
português: Timocracia
русский: Тимократия
Simple English: Timocracy
slovenčina: Timokracia
српски / srpski: Тимократија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Timokratija
suomi: Timokratia
svenska: Timokrati
Türkçe: Timokrasi
українська: Тимократія
中文: 勋阀政治