Thoth

ḏḥwtj
Thoth
Thoth.svg
Thoth, in one of his forms as an ibis-headed man
Major cult centerHermopolis
SymbolIbis, moon disk, papyrus scroll, reed pens, writing palette, stylus, baboon, scales
ConsortSeshat,[1] Maat, Nehmetawy[2]
OffspringSeshat in some accounts
ParentsNone (self-created); alternatively Neith or Ra or Horus and Hathor

Thoth (t/; from Koine Greek: Θώθ thṓth, borrowed from Coptic: Ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ, the reflex of Ancient Egyptian: ḏḥwtj "[He] is like the Ibis") is one of the ancient Egyptian deities. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat, and his wife was Ma'at.[3]

Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Ancient Egyptian: ḫmnw χaˈmaːnaw, Egyptological pronunciation: "Khemenu", Coptic: Ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Shmun,[note 1][4] which was known as Ἑρμοῦ πόλις Hermoû pólis "The City of Hermes", or in Latin as Hermopolis Magna,[5] during the Hellenistic period[6] through the interpretatio graeca that Thoth was Hermes. Later known el-Ashmunein in Egyptian Arabic, it was partially destroyed in 1826.[7]

In Hermopolis, Thoth led "the Ogdoad", a pantheon of eight principal deities, and his spouse was Nehmetawy. He also had numerous shrines within the cities of Abydos, Hesert, Urit, Per-Ab, Rekhui, Ta-ur, Sep, Hat, Pselket, Talmsis, Antcha-Mutet, Bah, Amen-heri-ab, and Ta-kens.[8]

Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Maat) who stood on either side of Ra's solar barge.[9] In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes,[10] the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science,[11] and the judgment of the dead.[12]

Name

Etymology

G26t
Z4
A40

or
DHwt
Z4
R8
Common names for Thoth[13]
in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī, perhaps pronounced *[t͡ʃʼi.ˈħau.tʰiː] or *[ci.ˈħau.tʰiː]. This reconstruction is based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Thōth (Θώθ [tʰɔːtʰ]) or Theut and the fact that the name was transliterated into Sahidic Coptic variously as ⲑⲟⲟⲩⲧ Thoout, ⲑⲱⲑ Thōth, ⲑⲟⲟⲧ Thoot, ⲑⲁⲩⲧ Thaut, as well as Bohairic Coptic ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ Thōout. These spellings reflect known sound changes from earlier Egyptian such as the loss of palatalization and merger of with h i.e. initial ḏḥ > th > tʰ.[14] The loss of pre-Coptic final y/j is also common.[15] Following Egyptological convention, which eschews vowel reconstruction, the consonant skeleton ḏḥwty would be rendered "Djehuti" and the god is sometimes found under this name. However, the Greek form "Thoth" is more common.

According to Theodor Hopfner,[16] Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the ibis, normally written as hbj. The addition of -ty denotes that he possessed the attributes of the ibis.[17] Hence Thoth's name would mean "He who is like the ibis", according to this interpretation.

Thoout, Thoth Deux fois Grand, le Second Hermés, N372.2A, Brooklyn Museum

Further names and spellings

Other forms of the name ḏḥwty using older transcriptions include Jehuti, Jehuty, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, or Tetu. Multiple titles for Thoth, similar to the pharaonic titulary, are also known, including A, Sheps, Lord of Khemennu, Asten, Khenti, Mehi, Hab, and A'an.[18]

In addition, Thoth was also known by specific aspects of himself, for instance the moon god Iah-Djehuty (j3ḥ-ḏḥw.ty), representing the Moon for the entire month.[19] The Greeks related Thoth to their god Hermes due to his similar attributes and functions.[20] One of Thoth's titles, "Thrice great" (see Titles) was translated to the Greek τρισμέγιστος (trismégistos), making Hermes Trismegistus.[21]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Thoth
Alemannisch: Thoth
العربية: تحوت
azərbaycanca: Tot
беларуская: Тот
български: Тот
bosanski: Thoth
brezhoneg: Tot
català: Thot
čeština: Thovt
Cymraeg: Thoth
dansk: Thoth
Deutsch: Thot
eesti: Thot
Ελληνικά: Θωθ
español: Tot
Esperanto: Toto
euskara: Tot
فارسی: تحوت
français: Thot
Gaeilge: Tót
한국어: 토트
հայերեն: Թոթ
हिन्दी: थोथ
hrvatski: Thoth
Bahasa Indonesia: Thoth
íslenska: Þoþ
italiano: Thot
עברית: תחות
Basa Jawa: Thoth
ქართული: თოტი
Latina: Thoth
latviešu: Tots
lietuvių: Totas
magyar: Thot
македонски: Тот
മലയാളം: തോത്ത്
მარგალური: თოტი
مصرى: تحوت
Bahasa Melayu: Dewa Thoth
Nederlands: Thoth (mythologie)
Nedersaksies: Thoth
日本語: トート
norsk: Tot
occitan: Djehoti
polski: Thot
português: Tot
română: Thot
русский: Тот
Scots: Thoth
sicilianu: Thoth
Simple English: Thoth
slovenčina: Thovt
slovenščina: Tot
српски / srpski: Теут
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tot
suomi: Thot
svenska: Thot
Tagalog: Thoth
Türkçe: Thoth
українська: Тот
اردو: تحوت
Tiếng Việt: Thoth
Winaray: Thoth
中文: 托特