Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison2.jpg
Edison, c.1922
BornThomas Alva Edison
(1847-02-11)February 11, 1847
Milan, Ohio, U.S.
DiedOctober 18, 1931(1931-10-18) (aged 84)
West Orange, New Jersey, U.S.
Burial placeThomas Edison National Historical Park
NationalityAmerican
EducationSelf-educated
OccupationInventor, businessman
Years active1877–1930
Spouse(s)
  • Mary Stilwell (m. 18711884)
  • Mina Miller (m. 18861931)
Children
Parent(s)
  • Samuel Ogden Edison Jr. (1804–1896)
  • Nancy Matthews Elliott (1810–1871)
RelativesLewis Miller (father-in-law)
Signature
Thomas Alva Edison Signature.svg

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.[1][2][3] He is credited with developing many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures.[4] These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world.[5] He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees.[6] He is often credited with establishing the first industrial research laboratory.[6]

Edison was raised in the American midwest and early in his career he worked as a telegraph operator, which inspired some of his earliest inventions.[4] In 1876, he established his first laboratory facility in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where many of his early inventions would be developed. He would later establish a botanic laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida in collaboration with businessmen Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone, and a laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey that featured the world's first film studio, the Black Maria. He was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as patents in other countries. Edison married twice and fathered six children. He died in 1931 of complications of diabetes.

Early life

Edison as a boy

Thomas Edison was born, in 1847, in Milan, Ohio, and grew up in Port Huron, Michigan. He was the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison Jr. (1804–1896, born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia) and Nancy Matthews Elliott (1810–1871, born in Chenango County, New York).[7][8] His father, the son of a Loyalist refugee, had moved as a boy with the family from Nova Scotia, settling in southwestern Ontario (then called Upper Canada), in a village known as Shewsbury, later Vienna, by 1811. Samuel Jr. eventually fled Ontario, because he took part in the unsuccessful Mackenzie Rebellion of 1837.[9] His father, Samuel Sr., had earlier fought in the War of 1812 as captain of the First Middlesex Regiment. By contrast, Samuel Jr.'s struggle found him on the losing side, and he crossed into the United States at Sarnia-Port Huron. Once across the border, he found his way to Milan, Ohio. His patrilineal family line was Dutch by way of New Jersey; the surname had originally been "Edeson."[10]

Edison only attended school for a few months and was instead taught by his mother.[11] Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art.[12]

Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections. Around the middle of his career, Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michigan, along with his apparatus and chemicals. In his later years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears.[13][14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Thomas Edison
Alemannisch: Thomas Alva Edison
العربية: توماس إديسون
armãneashti: Thomas Alva Edison
Avañe'ẽ: Thomas Edison
Aymar aru: Thomas Edison
azərbaycanca: Tomas Alva Edison
Bahasa Banjar: Thomas Alva Edison
Bân-lâm-gú: Thomas Edison
Basa Banyumasan: Thomas Alva Edison
беларуская: Томас Эдысан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Томас Эдысан
Bislama: Thomas Edison
български: Томас Едисън
bosanski: Thomas Edison
brezhoneg: Thomas Edison
Cebuano: Thomas Edison
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Thomas Edison
Cymraeg: Thomas Edison
Ελληνικά: Τόμας Έντισον
Fiji Hindi: Thomas Edison
français: Thomas Edison
Gaeilge: Thomas Edison
贛語: 愛迪生
Gĩkũyũ: Thomas Edison
ગુજરાતી: થૉમસ ઍડિસન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Thomas Edison
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thomas Eddison
հայերեն: Թոմաս Էդիսոն
Bahasa Hulontalo: Thomas Alva Edison
Ilokano: Thomas Edison
Bahasa Indonesia: Thomas Alva Edison
interlingua: Thomas Edison
italiano: Thomas Edison
Kabɩyɛ: Thomas Edison
Kapampangan: Thomas Edison
къарачай-малкъар: Эдисон, Томас Альфа
Kiswahili: Thomas Edison
Кыргызча: Томас Эдисон
لۊری شومالی: توٙماس ئدیسون
latviešu: Tomass Edisons
Lëtzebuergesch: Thomas Alva Edison
lietuvių: Thomas Edison
Limburgs: Thomas Edison
Lingua Franca Nova: Thomas Alva Edison
Livvinkarjala: Thomas Edison
lumbaart: Thomas Edison
македонски: Томас Алва Едисон
Malagasy: Thomas Edison
مازِرونی: ادیسون
Bahasa Melayu: Thomas Edison
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Thomas Edison
Mirandés: Thomas Edison
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သောမတ် အက်ဒီဆင်
Nederlands: Thomas Edison
नेपाल भाषा: थोमस एडिसन
norsk nynorsk: Thomas Edison
occitan: Thomas Edison
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Thomas Edison
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਥਾਮਸ ਐਡੀਸਨ
Piemontèis: Thomas Edison
português: Thomas Edison
Qaraqalpaqsha: Thomas Edison
Ripoarisch: Thomas Alva Edison
русиньскый: Томас Едісон
саха тыла: Томас Эдисон
Gagana Samoa: Thomas Edison
संस्कृतम्: थामस् एडिसन्
Simple English: Thomas Edison
slovenčina: Thomas Alva Edison
slovenščina: Thomas Alva Edison
Soomaaliga: Tomas Edison
српски / srpski: Томас Алва Едисон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Thomas Alva Edison
Basa Sunda: Thomas Alfa Edison
svenska: Thomas Edison
Tagalog: Thomas Edison
Taqbaylit: Thomas Edison
татарча/tatarça: Томас Эдисон
Türkçe: Thomas Edison
Türkmençe: Tomas Edison
українська: Томас Алва Едісон
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: توماس ئېدىسون
vepsän kel’: Edison Tomas Alva
Tiếng Việt: Thomas Edison
Volapük: Thomas Edison
Winaray: Thomas Edison
吴语: 爱迪生
Yorùbá: Thomas Edison
粵語: 愛迪生
Zeêuws: Thomas Edison
žemaitėška: Tuoms Edėsuons
中文: 爱迪生