Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.tif
Theodore Roosevelt around 1904
26th President of the United States
In office
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
Vice PresidentNone (1901–1905)
Charles W. Fairbanks
(1905–1909)
Preceded byWilliam McKinley
Succeeded byWilliam Howard Taft
25th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901
PresidentWilliam McKinley
Preceded byGarret Hobart
Succeeded byCharles W. Fairbanks
33rd Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1899 – December 31, 1900
LieutenantTimothy L. Woodruff
Preceded byFrank S. Black
Succeeded byBenjamin Barker Odell Jr.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
In office
April 19, 1897 – May 10, 1898
PresidentWilliam McKinley
Preceded byWilliam McAdoo
Succeeded byCharles Herbert Allen
President of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners
In office
1895–1897
Preceded byJames J. Martin
Succeeded byFrank Moss
New York State Assembly Minority Leader
In office
January 1, 1883 – December 31, 1883
Preceded byThomas G. Alvord
Succeeded byFrank Rice
Member of the New York State Assembly
from the Manhattan 21st district
In office
January 1, 1882 – December 31, 1884
Preceded byWilliam J. Trimble
Succeeded byHenry A. Barnum
Personal details
BornTheodore Roosevelt Jr.
(1858-10-27)October 27, 1858
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedJanuary 6, 1919(1919-01-06) (aged 60)
Oyster Bay, New York, U.S.
Cause of deathPulmonary embolism
Resting placeYoungs Memorial Cemetery, Oyster Bay, New York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (1880–1911; 1916–1919)
Other political
affiliations
Progressive "Bull Moose" (1912–1916)
Spouse(s)
RelationsRoosevelt family
ChildrenAlice, Theodore III, Kermit, Ethel, Archibald, and Quentin
Parents
EducationHarvard University (B.A.)
Columbia Law School (J.D.)
Profession
  • Author
  • Conservationist
  • Explorer
  • Historian
  • Naturalist
  • Politician
  • Soldier
Civilian awardsNobel Prize.png Nobel Peace Prize (1906)
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch

Seal of the United States Department of War.png United States Army

Years of service1882–1886, 1898
RankUnion Army colonel rank insignia.png Colonel
Commands1st United States Volunteer Cavalry
Battles/warsSpanish–American War
 • Battle of Las Guasimas
 • Battle of San Juan Hill
Military awardsMedal of Honor ribbon.svg Medal of Honor
(posthumously; 2001)

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (t/ ROH-zə-velt;[a] October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He also served as the 25th Vice President of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd Governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.

Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle. He integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College. His book, The Naval War of 1812 (1882), established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, and the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity, and conservation.

After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he became President at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, and remains the youngest person to become President of the United States. As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, and pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal. He expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. He avoided controversial tariff and money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, and Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents.[2]

Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination and eventually win the election in 1912. He failed, walked out, and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split allowed the Democrats to win the White House. Following his election defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, and his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, and he died in 1919.

Early life and family

Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
Roosevelt's coat of arms, featuring a rose bush in reference to the name: "Roosevelt", which is Dutch for "rose field"[3]

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27, 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City.[4] He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr. (brother of Robert Roosevelt and James A. Roosevelt, all sons of Cornelius Roosevelt). He had an older sister, Anna (nicknamed "Bamie"), a younger brother, Elliott, and a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was later the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. His paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent;[5] his other ancestry included primarily Scottish and Scots-Irish, English[6] and smaller amounts of German, Welsh, and French.[7] Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.V.S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, who was also a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart.[8] Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family.[9]

Roosevelt's youth was largely shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma. He repeatedly experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure.[10] Nevertheless, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive.[11] His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven when he saw a dead seal at a local market; after obtaining the seal's head, Roosevelt and two cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught; he then studied the animals and prepared them for display. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects".[12]

Roosevelt's father significantly influenced him. His father was a prominent leader in New York's cultural affairs; he helped to found the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and had been especially active in mobilizing support for the Union during the Civil War, even though his in-laws included Confederate leaders. Roosevelt said, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness." Family trips abroad, including tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and Egypt in 1872, shaped his cosmopolitan perspective.[13] Hiking with his family in the Alps in 1869, Roosevelt found that he could keep pace with his father. He had discovered the significant benefits of physical exertion to minimize his asthma and bolster his spirits.[14] Roosevelt began a heavy regime of exercise. After being manhandled by two older boys on a camping trip, he found a boxing coach to teach him to fight and strengthen his body.[15][16]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Teodor Ruzvelt
Bân-lâm-gú: Theodore Roosevelt
беларуская: Тэадор Рузвельт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тэадор Рузвэлт
Bikol Central: Theodore Roosevelt
български: Теодор Рузвелт
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Theodore Roosevelt
Bahasa Indonesia: Theodore Roosevelt
interlingua: Theodore Roosevelt
Kapampangan: Theodore Roosevelt
Kinyarwanda: Theodore Roosevelt
لۊری شومالی: تئودور روٙزڤولت
Lëtzebuergesch: Theodore Roosevelt
македонски: Теодор Рузвелт
მარგალური: თეოდორ რუზველტი
مازِرونی: تئودور روزولت
Bahasa Melayu: Theodore Roosevelt
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Theodore Roosevelt
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သီအိုဒို ရုစဗဲ့
Nederlands: Theodore Roosevelt
Nordfriisk: Theodore Roosevelt
norsk nynorsk: Theodore Roosevelt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Theodore Roosevelt
Piemontèis: Theodore Roosevelt
Plattdüütsch: Theodore Roosevelt
português: Theodore Roosevelt
Simple English: Theodore Roosevelt
slovenčina: Theodore Roosevelt
slovenščina: Theodore Roosevelt
српски / srpski: Теодор Рузвелт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Theodore Roosevelt
татарча/tatarça: Теодор Рузвельт
українська: Теодор Рузвельт
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تېئودور روزېۋېلت
Tiếng Việt: Theodore Roosevelt
文言: 老羅斯福
žemaitėška: Teuoduors Rūzvelts
Lingua Franca Nova: Theodore Roosevelt