State of Texas
The Lone Star State
Anthem: "Texas, Our Texas"
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodRepublic of Texas
Admitted to the UnionDecember 29, 1845 (28th)
Largest cityHouston
Largest metroDallas–Fort Worth Metroplex
 • GovernorGreg Abbott (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorDan Patrick (R)
LegislatureTexas Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. senatorsJohn Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
U.S. House delegation23 Republicans
13 Democrats (list)
 • Total268,581[1] sq mi (696,241 km2)
 • Land261,797[1] sq mi (678,051 km2)
 • Water6,784[1] sq mi (17,574 km2)  2.5%
Area rank2nd
 • Length790 mi (1,270 km)
 • Width773[2] mi (1,244 km)
1,700 ft (520 m)
Highest elevation8,751 ft (2,667.4 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
 • Total28,995,881 (2019 est.)[6][7]
 • Rank2nd
 • Density108/sq mi (40.6/km2)
 • Density rank26th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Texian (archaic)
Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)
 • Official languageNo official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
 • Spoken languagePredominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority[9]
Time zones
Majority of stateUTC-06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-05:00 (CDT)
El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson countiesUTC-07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-TX
Texas state symbols
Flag of Texas.svg
Seal of Texas.svg
Living insignia
BirdNorthern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
FishGuadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)
FlowerBluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)
InsectMonarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
MammalTexas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
ReptileTexas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)
TreePecan (Carya illinoinensis)
Inanimate insignia
ShellLightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)
ShipUSS Texas
SloganThe Friendly State
SoilHouston Black
OtherMolecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)
State route marker
Texas state route marker
State quarter
Texas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2004
Lists of United States state symbols

Texas (s/, locally z/;[10] Spanish: Texas or Tejas, pronounced [ˈtexas] (About this soundlisten)) is the second largest state in the United States by area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Located in the South Central region, Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal.[11] The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha, which means "friends" in the Caddo language.[12]

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and Southwestern regions.[13] Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert.[14] Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term "six flags over Texas"[note 1] refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845,[15] Texas joined the union as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.[16] Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54.[17] With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002, and has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world.


The name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ (/t'ajʃaʔ/) "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas,[18] by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy,[19] the final -s representing the Spanish plural.[20] The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas.[21]

During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas (New Philippines”) and Nuevo Reino de Filipinas ("New Kingdom of the Philippines"),[22] or as provincia de los Tejas ("province of the Tejas"),[23] later also provincia de Texas (or de Tejas), ("province of Texas").[24][22] It was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, and declared a republic in 1836. The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. State of Texas.[25]

The English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, and based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements.[26] A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett.[26]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Texas
Alemannisch: Texas
አማርኛ: ቴክሳስ
Ænglisc: Texas
العربية: تكساس
aragonés: Texas
arpetan: Tèxas
asturianu: Texas
Avañe'ẽ: Texas
Aymar aru: Texas suyu
azərbaycanca: Texas
বাংলা: টেক্সাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Texas
башҡортса: Техас
беларуская: Тэхас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тэхас
भोजपुरी: टेक्सास
Bikol Central: Texas
Bislama: Texas
български: Тексас
Boarisch: Texas
བོད་ཡིག: ཋེག་ཟ་སི།
bosanski: Teksas
brezhoneg: Texas
буряад: Техас
català: Texas
Чӑвашла: Техас
Cebuano: Texas
čeština: Texas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Texas
corsu: Texas
Cymraeg: Texas
dansk: Texas
davvisámegiella: Texas
Deutsch: Texas
Diné bizaad: Akałii Bikéyah
dolnoserbski: Texas
eesti: Texas
Ελληνικά: Τέξας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Tèxas
español: Texas
Esperanto: Teksaso
euskara: Texas
فارسی: تگزاس
Fiji Hindi: Texas
føroyskt: Texas
français: Texas
Frysk: Teksas
Gaeilge: Texas
Gaelg: Texas
Gagauz: Teksas
Gàidhlig: Texas
galego: Texas
گیلکی: تگزاس
ગુજરાતી: ટેક્સસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Texas
хальмг: Техас
한국어: 텍사스주
Hausa: Texas
Hawaiʻi: Kekeka
հայերեն: Տեխաս
हिन्दी: टेक्सस
hornjoserbsce: Texas
hrvatski: Texas
Bahasa Hulontalo: Texas
Ido: Texas
Igbo: Texas
Ilokano: Texas
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: টেক্সাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Texas
interlingua: Texas
Interlingue: Texas
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑖᒃᓵᔅ
Iñupiak: Texas
Ирон: Техас
isiZulu: Texas
íslenska: Texas
italiano: Texas
עברית: טקסס
Jawa: Texas
Kabɩyɛ: Tɛkɩzasɩ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟೆಕ್ಸಸ್
Kapampangan: Texas
ქართული: ტეხასი
қазақша: Техас
kernowek: Teksas
Kiswahili: Texas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Teksas
kurdî: Teksas
кырык мары: Техас
Ladino: Texas
لۊری شومالی: تگزاس
Latina: Texia
latviešu: Teksasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Texas
lietuvių: Teksasas
Ligure: Texas
Limburgs: Texas
Lingua Franca Nova: Texas
la .lojban.: teksys
lumbaart: Texas
magyar: Texas
मैथिली: टेक्सस
македонски: Тексас
Malagasy: Texas
മലയാളം: ടെക്സസ്
Māori: Texas
मराठी: टेक्सास
მარგალური: ტეხასი
مصرى: تكساس
مازِرونی: تگزاس
Bahasa Melayu: Texas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Texas
монгол: Техас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တက္ကဆပ်ပြည်နယ်
Dorerin Naoero: Texas
Nederlands: Texas (staat)
Nedersaksies: Texas
नेपाली: टेक्सस
नेपाल भाषा: तेक्सास
日本語: テキサス州
нохчийн: Техас
Nordfriisk: Texas
norsk: Texas
norsk nynorsk: Texas
occitan: Tèxas
олык марий: Техас
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Texas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਟੈਕਸਸ
पालि: टेक्सास
پنجابی: ٹیکساس
Papiamentu: Teksas
پښتو: تکزاس
Piemontèis: Texas
Plattdüütsch: Texas
polski: Teksas
português: Texas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Texas shtati
română: Texas
rumantsch: Texas
Runa Simi: Texas suyu
русский: Техас
саха тыла: Техас
संस्कृतम्: टेक्सास्
sardu: Texas
Scots: Texas
Seeltersk: Texas
shqip: Texas
sicilianu: Texas
Simple English: Texas
slovenčina: Texas
slovenščina: Teksas
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Тєѯасъ
ślůnski: Teksas
Soomaaliga: Texas
کوردی: تێکساس
српски / srpski: Тексас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Texas
suomi: Texas
svenska: Texas
Tagalog: Texas
தமிழ்: டெக்சஸ்
Taqbaylit: Tiksas
татарча/tatarça: Техас (штат)
తెలుగు: టెక్సస్
тоҷикӣ: Техас
Tsetsêhestâhese: Toháano'ého'ëva
Türkçe: Teksas
Türkmençe: Tehas
українська: Техас
اردو: ٹیکساس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Téksas Shitati
vèneto: Tecsas
Tiếng Việt: Texas
Volapük: Täxasän
Winaray: Texas
ייִדיש: טעקסאס
Yorùbá: Texas
粵語: 德薩斯州
Zazaki: Teksas
Zeêuws: Texas
žemaitėška: Teksasos