Telegraphy

Replica of Claude Chappe's optical telegraph on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany

Telegraphy (from Ancient Greek: τῆλε, têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν, gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not.

Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples.

In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging.

Terminology

The word "telegraph" was first coined by the French inventor of the Semaphore line, Claude Chappe, who also coined the word "semaphore".[1]

A "telegraph" is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e., for telegraphy. The word "telegraph" alone now generally refers to an electrical telegraph.

Wireless telegraphy is also known as "CW", for continuous wave (a carrier modulated by on-off keying), as opposed to the earlier radio technique of using a spark gap.[citation needed]

Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term telegraph can strictly be applied only to systems that transmit and record messages at a distance. This is to be distinguished from semaphore, which merely transmits messages. Smoke signals, for instance, are to be considered semaphore, not telegraph. According to Morse, telegraph dates only from 1832 when Pavel Schilling invented one of the earliest electrical telegraphs.[2]

A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher using Morse code (or a printing telegraph operator using plain text) was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable,[3] often shortened to a cable or a wire. Later, a Telex was a message sent by a Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network.

A wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture that was sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph. A diplomatic telegram, also known as a diplomatic cable, is the term given to a confidential communication between a diplomatic mission and the foreign ministry of its parent country.[4][5] These continue to be called telegrams or cables regardless of the method used for transmission.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Telegrafie
العربية: تلغراف
asturianu: Telegrafía
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiān-pò
български: Телеграфия
català: Telegrafia
čeština: Telegrafie
dansk: Telegrafi
Deutsch: Telegrafie
Ελληνικά: Τηλεγραφία
español: Telegrafía
Esperanto: Telegrafio
euskara: Telegrafia
فارسی: تلگراف
Gàidhlig: Dealan-spèid
한국어: 전보
हिन्दी: टेलीग्राफ
hrvatski: Telegrafija
Bahasa Indonesia: Telegrafi
íslenska: Ritsími
עברית: טלגרפיה
ქართული: ტელეგრაფი
Kiswahili: Telegrafu
Latina: Telegraphia
latviešu: Telegrāfs
lietuvių: Telegrafas
magyar: Távíró
მარგალური: ტელეგრაფი
Bahasa Melayu: Telegrafi
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကြေးနန်း
Nederlands: Telegrafie
नेपाल भाषा: टेलेग्राफी
日本語: 電報
norsk: Telegrafi
norsk nynorsk: Telegrafi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Telegrafiya
polski: Telegrafia
português: Telegrafia
română: Telegrafie
rumantsch: Telegrafia
Scots: Telegrafie
Seeltersk: Telegrafie
shqip: Telegrafi
Simple English: Telegraphy
српски / srpski: Телеграфија
suomi: Lennätin
svenska: Telegrafi
Tagalog: Telegrapiya
தமிழ்: தந்தி
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏕᎦᏃᏣᎸ
Tiếng Việt: Điện báo
Winaray: Telegrapiya
ייִדיש: טעלעגראפיע
粵語: 電報
中文: 电报