A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.[1] A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent.

Most countries have a tax system in place to pay for public/common/agreed national needs and government functions: some levy a flat percentage rate of taxation on personal annual income, some on a scale based on annual income amounts, and some countries impose almost no taxation at all, or a very low tax rate for a certain area of taxation. Some countries charge a tax both on corporate income and dividends; this is often referred to as double taxation as the individual shareholder(s) receiving this payment from the company will also be levied some tax on that personal income.


Pieter Brueghel the Younger, The tax collector's office, 1640

The legal definition, and the economic definition of taxes differ in some ways such as economists do not regard many transfers to governments as taxes. For example, some transfers to the public sector are comparable to prices. Examples include, tuition at public universities, and fees for utilities provided by local governments. Governments also obtain resources by "creating" money and coins (for example, by printing bills and by minting coins), through voluntary gifts (for example, contributions to public universities and museums), by imposing penalties (such as traffic fines), by borrowing, and also by confiscating wealth. From the view of economists, a tax is a non-penal, yet compulsory transfer of resources from the private to the public sector, levied on a basis of predetermined criteria and without reference to specific benefit received.

In modern taxation systems, governments levy taxes in money; but in-kind and corvée taxation are characteristic of traditional or pre-capitalist states and their functional equivalents. The method of taxation and the government expenditure of taxes raised is often highly debated in politics and economics. Tax collection is performed by a government agency such as the Ghana Revenue Authority, Canada Revenue Agency, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the United States, Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) in the United Kingdom or Federal Tax Service in Russia. When taxes are not fully paid, the state may impose civil penalties (such as fines or forfeiture) or criminal penalties (such as incarceration) on the non-paying entity or individual.[2]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Belasting
Alemannisch: Steuer
አማርኛ: ግብር
العربية: ضريبة
aragonés: Impuesto
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܕܐܬܐ
অসমীয়া: কৰ
asturianu: Impuestu
azərbaycanca: Vergi
বাংলা: কর
Bân-lâm-gú: Cho͘-sòe
башҡортса: Һалым
беларуская: Падатак
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Падатак
български: Данък
bosanski: Porez
brezhoneg: Tell
буряад: Татабари
català: Impost
čeština: Daň
chiShona: Mutero
Cymraeg: Treth
dansk: Skat
Deutsch: Steuer
eesti: Maksud
Ελληνικά: Φορολογία
español: Impuesto
Esperanto: Imposto
euskara: Zerga
فارسی: مالیات
Fiji Hindi: Tax
français: Impôt
galego: Imposto
한국어: 조세
հայերեն: Հարկ
हिन्दी: कर
hrvatski: Porez
Ido: Imposto
Ilokano: Buis
Bahasa Indonesia: Pajak
interlingua: Taxa
Ирон: Налог
íslenska: Skattur
italiano: Imposta
עברית: מס
ಕನ್ನಡ: ತೆರಿಗೆ
къарачай-малкъар: Налог
ქართული: გადასახადი
қазақша: Салық
Kiswahili: Kodi (ushuru)
Kreyòl ayisyen: Enpo
Кыргызча: Салык
ລາວ: ພາສີ
لۊری شومالی: مالیات
Latina: Tributum
latviešu: Nodoklis
Lëtzebuergesch: Steier
lietuvių: Mokestis
magyar: Adó
македонски: Данок
Malagasy: Hetra
മലയാളം: നികുതി
मराठी: कर
مصرى: ضريبه
Bahasa Melayu: Cukai
монгол: Татвар
नेपाली: कर
नेपाल भाषा: कर
日本語: 租税
norsk: Skatt
norsk nynorsk: Skatt
occitan: Impòst
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Soliq
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਰ
پنجابی: ٹیکس
پښتو: ورکړېنه
Patois: Tax
Piemontèis: Taja
polski: Podatek
português: Imposto
română: Impozit
Runa Simi: Impuwistu
русиньскый: Дань
русский: Налог
саха тыла: Түһээн
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱷᱟᱡᱽᱱᱟ
Scots: Tax
shqip: Tatimi
සිංහල: බදු
Simple English: Tax
slovenčina: Daň
slovenščina: Davek
Soomaaliga: Canshuurta
српски / srpski: Порез
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Porez
Basa Sunda: Pajeg
suomi: Vero
svenska: Skatt
Tagalog: Buwis
தமிழ்: வரி
татарча/tatarça: Салым
ไทย: ภาษี
тоҷикӣ: Андоз
Türkçe: Vergi
українська: Податок
اردو: مالیات
Tiếng Việt: Thuế
Winaray: Buhís
ייִדיש: שטייער
žemaitėška: Muokesnis