Tanzania

United Republic of Tanzania

Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania  (Swahili)
Motto: "Uhuru na Umoja" (Swahili)
"Freedom and Unity"
Anthem: "Mungu ibariki Afrika"
(English: "God Bless Africa")
Location of Tanzania
Location of Tanzania
CapitalDodoma (de jure)
Largest cityDar es Salaam
Recognised regional languagesArabic
Official Language
and national language
Swahili[1]
Other language De facto official
Demonym(s)Tanzanian
GovernmentUnitary dominant party presidential constitutional republic[2][3][4]
• President
John Magufuli
Samia Hassan Suluhu
Kassim Majaliwa
• Speaker
Job Ndugai
Ibrahim Hamis Juma
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
9 December 1961
10 December 1963
• Merger
26 April 1964
• Current constitution
25 April 1977
Area
• Total
947,303 km2 (365,756 sq mi) (31st)
• Water (%)
6.4[5]
Population
• 2016 estimate
55,572,201[6] (26th)
• 2012 census
44,928,923[7]
• Density
47.5/km2 (123.0/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$186.060 billion
• Per capita
$3,574[8]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$61.032 billion
• Per capita
$1,172[8]
Gini (2012)37.8[9]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.538[10]
low · 154th
CurrencyTanzanian shilling (TZS)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+255[note 1]
ISO 3166 codeTZ
Internet TLD.tz
  1. Revised to $41.33 billion[11]
  2. Swahili and English are de facto official languages

Tanzania (ə/,[12][13][note 2] Swahili: [tanzaˈni.a]) officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.

Many important hominid fossils have been found in Tanzania, such as 6 million year-old Pliocene hominid fossils. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago; and the oldest remains of the Homo genus are found near Lake Olduvai. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, and later in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens also overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, and their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire, medicine, and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them.

Later in the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia;[14] Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of Lake Turkana about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago;[14] and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from the present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.[14]:page 18 These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.[14][15]

German rule began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa. This was followed by British rule after World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.[16]

The United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.[6] The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located.[17] Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre.[16][18][19] Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power.

Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. The Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa.[20]

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[21] The country does not have a de jure official language,[citation needed] although the national language is Swahili.[22] Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education,[21] although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether.[23] Approximately 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language.[21]

Etymology

The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar.[24] It consists of the first three letters of the names of the two states ("Tan" and "Zan") followed by the only two vowels in the names of the two states ("i" and "a") to form Tanzania.

The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga ("sail") and nyika ("uninhabited plain", "wilderness"), creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness". It is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika.[25]

The name of Zanzibar comes from "zenji", the name for a local people (said to mean "black"), and the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.[26]

Other Languages
Acèh: Tanzania
Адыгэбзэ: Танзаниэ
адыгабзэ: Танзание
Afrikaans: Tanzanië
Akan: Tanzania
Alemannisch: Tansania
አማርኛ: ታንዛኒያ
Ænglisc: Tansania
العربية: تنزانيا
aragonés: Tanzania
arpetan: Tanzanie
asturianu: Tanzania
Avañe'ẽ: Tãsáña
Aymar aru: Tansanya
azərbaycanca: Tanzaniya
تۆرکجه: تانزانیا
bamanankan: Tanzania
Bahasa Banjar: Tanzania
Bân-lâm-gú: Tanzania
башҡортса: Танзания
беларуская: Танзанія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Танзанія
भोजपुरी: तंजानिया
Bikol Central: Tansaniya
български: Танзания
བོད་ཡིག: ཏན་ཛ་ནི་ཡ།
bosanski: Tanzanija
brezhoneg: Tanzania
буряад: Танзани
català: Tanzània
Чӑвашла: Танзани
Cebuano: Tanzania
čeština: Tanzanie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Tanzania
Chi-Chewa: Tanzania
chiShona: Tanzania
chiTumbuka: Tanzania
Cymraeg: Tansanïa
dansk: Tanzania
davvisámegiella: Tansánia
Deutsch: Tansania
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޓެންޒޭނިއާ
dolnoserbski: Tansanija
डोटेली: तान्जानिया
eesti: Tansaania
Ελληνικά: Τανζανία
español: Tanzania
Esperanto: Tanzanio
estremeñu: Tanzánia
euskara: Tanzania
eʋegbe: Tanzania
فارسی: تانزانیا
Fiji Hindi: Tanzania
føroyskt: Tansania
français: Tanzanie
Frysk: Tanzania
Gaeilge: An Tansáin
Gaelg: Tanzania
Gagauz: Tanzaniya
Gàidhlig: Tansainia
galego: Tanzania
ГӀалгӀай: Танзани
Gĩkũyũ: Tanzania
ગુજરાતી: ટાન્ઝાનિયા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tanzania
한국어: 탄자니아
Hausa: Tanzaniya
հայերեն: Տանզանիա
हिन्दी: तंज़ानिया
hornjoserbsce: Tansanija
hrvatski: Tanzanija
Igbo: Tanzania
Ilokano: Tanzania
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তাঞ্জানিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Tanzania
interlingua: Tanzania
Interlingue: Tanzania
Ирон: Танзани
isiZulu: ITanzania
íslenska: Tansanía
italiano: Tanzania
עברית: טנזניה
Jawa: Tanzania
Kabɩyɛ: Tanzani
kalaallisut: Tanzania
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಟಾಂಜಾನಿಯ
Kapampangan: Tanzania
ქართული: ტანზანია
kaszëbsczi: Tanzaniô
қазақша: Танзания
kernowek: Tanzania
Kinyarwanda: Tanzaniya
Kirundi: Tanzaniya
Kiswahili: Tanzania
Kongo: Tanzania
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tanzani
kurdî: Tanzanya
Кыргызча: Танзания
кырык мары: Танзани
Ladino: Tanzania
latgaļu: Tanzaneja
Latina: Tanzania
latviešu: Tanzānija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tansania
лезги: Танзания
lietuvių: Tanzanija
Ligure: Tanzania
Limburgs: Tanzania
lingála: Tanzania
Lingua Franca Nova: Tanzania
Livvinkarjala: Tanzanii
la .lojban.: tanzanias
Luganda: Tanzania
lumbaart: Tanzania
magyar: Tanzánia
македонски: Танзанија
Malagasy: Tanzania
മലയാളം: ടാൻസാനിയ
Malti: Tanżanija
Māori: Tānahia
მარგალური: ტანზანია
مازِرونی: تانزانیا
Bahasa Melayu: Tanzania
Minangkabau: Tanzania
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tanzania
монгол: Танзани
Nāhuatl: Tanzania
Nederlands: Tanzania
नेपाली: तन्जानिया
नेपाल भाषा: ताञ्जानिया
日本語: タンザニア
нохчийн: Танзани
Nordfriisk: Tansania
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tansaania
norsk: Tanzania
norsk nynorsk: Tanzania
Novial: Tanzania
occitan: Tanzania
Oromoo: Tanzaaniyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tanzaniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਨਜ਼ਾਨੀਆ
پنجابی: تنزانیا
Papiamentu: Tanzania
Patois: Tanzania
Piemontèis: Tanzanìa
Plattdüütsch: Tansania
polski: Tanzania
português: Tanzânia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tanzaniya
qırımtatarca: Tanzaniya
română: Tanzania
rumantsch: Tansania
Runa Simi: Tansanya
русиньскый: Танзанія
русский: Танзания
саха тыла: Танзания
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱟᱱᱡᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟ
संस्कृतम्: टंजानिया
Sängö: Tanzanïi
sardu: Tanzània
Scots: Tanzanie
Seeltersk: Tansania
Sesotho: Tanzania
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tanzania
shqip: Tanzania
sicilianu: Tanzania
Simple English: Tanzania
سنڌي: تنزانيا
SiSwati: IThanzaniya
slovenčina: Tanzánia
slovenščina: Tanzanija
ślůnski: Tanzańijo
Soomaaliga: Tansaaniya
کوردی: تانزانیا
српски / srpski: Танзанија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tanzanija
Basa Sunda: Tanzania
suomi: Tansania
svenska: Tanzania
Tagalog: Tanzania
tarandíne: Tanzanie
татарча/tatarça: Танзания
తెలుగు: టాంజానియా
ትግርኛ: ታንዛኒያ
тоҷикӣ: Танзания
Tsetsêhestâhese: Tanzania
Türkçe: Tanzanya
Türkmençe: Tanzaniýa
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Tandhania
удмурт: Танзания
українська: Танзанія
اردو: تنزانیہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تانزانىيە
Vahcuengh: Tanzania
vèneto: Tanzania
vepsän kel’: Tanzanii
Tiếng Việt: Tanzania
Volapük: Tansanän
Võro: Tansaania
文言: 坦桑尼亞
Winaray: Tanzania
Wolof: Tansani
吴语: 坦桑尼亞
Xitsonga: Tanzania
ייִדיש: טאנזאניע
Yorùbá: Tanzania
粵語: 坦桑尼亞
Zazaki: Tanzanya
žemaitėška: Tanzanėjė
中文: 坦桑尼亚