Tajikistan

Republic of Tajikistan

  • Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)
    Jumhuriyi Tojikiston
Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ
National Anthem
Location of  Tajikistan  (green)
Location of  Tajikistan  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Dushanbe
38°33′N 68°48′E / 38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.550; 68.800
Official languagesTajik
Inter-ethnic
language
Russian
Ethnic groups
(2010[1])
Demonym(s)Tajikistani[2]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• President
Emomali Rahmon
Kokhir Rasulzoda
LegislatureSupreme Assembly
National Assembly
Assembly of Representatives
Formation
27 October 1924
• Tajik SSR
5 December 1929
• Independence from the Soviet Union
9 September 1991
21 December 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
6 November 1994
Area
• Total
143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) (94th)
• Water (%)
1.8
Population
• 2016 estimate
8,734,951[3] (97th)
• 2010 census
7,564,500
• Density
48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$27.802 billion[4] (128th)
• Per capita
$3,146[4]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$7.242 billion[4] (136th)
• Per capita
$819[4]
Gini (2009)30.8
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.650[5]
medium · 127th
CurrencySomoni (TJS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (TJT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+992
ISO 3166 codeTJ
Internet TLD.tj

Tajikistan (n/ (About this soundlisten), æ-/; Tajik: Тоҷикистон [tɔdʒikisˈtɔn]), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) and an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm[6] of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisation, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, and subsequently the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.[citation needed]

On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been criticised by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom, corruption and widespread violations of human rights.

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an NATO PfP partner.

Etymology

Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of"[7] or "country"[8] and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic (before the seventh century A.D.) tribe.[9] According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."[9]

Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/, and therefore дж, or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources.[10] "Tadjikistan" is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts. The way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is: تاجیکستان.

Other Languages
Acèh: Tajikistan
Адыгэбзэ: Таджыкыстэн
адыгабзэ: Таджикистан
Afrikaans: Tadjikistan
Alemannisch: Tadschikistan
አማርኛ: ታጂኪስታን
Ænglisc: Tacgicastan
العربية: طاجيكستان
aragonés: Tachiquistán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܛܐܓܝܩܣܛܐܢ
অসমীয়া: তাজিকিস্তান
asturianu: Taxiquistán
Avañe'ẽ: Tajikitã
Aymar aru: Tayiksuyu
azərbaycanca: Tacikistan
تۆرکجه: تاجیکیستان
Bân-lâm-gú: Tajikistan
башҡортса: Тажикстан
беларуская: Таджыкістан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Таджыкістан
भोजपुरी: ताजिकिस्तान
Bikol Central: Tayikistan
български: Таджикистан
Boarisch: Tadschikistan
bosanski: Tadžikistan
brezhoneg: Tadjikistan
català: Tadjikistan
Чӑвашла: Таджикистан
Cebuano: Tayikistan
čeština: Tádžikistán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Tayikistan
chiShona: Tajikistan
chiTumbuka: Tajikistan
Cymraeg: Tajicistan
davvisámegiella: Tažikistan
Deutsch: Tadschikistan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ތަޖިކިސްތާން
dolnoserbski: Tadźikistan
Ελληνικά: Τατζικιστάν
español: Tayikistán
Esperanto: Taĝikio
estremeñu: Tayiquistán
euskara: Tajikistan
eʋegbe: Tajikistan
فارسی: تاجیکستان
Fiji Hindi: Tajikistan
føroyskt: Tadsjikistan
français: Tadjikistan
Gagauz: Tacikistan
Gàidhlig: Taidigeastàn
galego: Taxiquistán
Gĩkũyũ: Tajikistan
ગુજરાતી: તાજિકિસ્તાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ताजिकिस्तान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tajikistan
한국어: 타지키스탄
Hausa: Tajikistan
հայերեն: Տաջիկստան
hornjoserbsce: Tadźikistan
hrvatski: Tadžikistan
Ilokano: Tayikistan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তাজিকিস্তান
Bahasa Indonesia: Tajikistan
interlingua: Tajikistan
Interlingue: Tadjikistan
íslenska: Tadsikistan
italiano: Tagikistan
עברית: טג'יקיסטן
Basa Jawa: Tajikistan
Kabɩyɛ: Tajikistanii
Kapampangan: Tajikistan
ქართული: ტაჯიკეთი
kaszëbsczi: Tadżikistan
қазақша: Тәжікстан
kernowek: Pow Tajik
Kinyarwanda: Tajikisitani
Kiswahili: Tajikistan
Kongo: Tajikistan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tadjikistan
kurdî: Tacîkistan
Кыргызча: Тажикстан
Ladino: Tadjikistan
لۊری شومالی: تاجیکستان
latviešu: Tadžikistāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Tadjikistan
lietuvių: Tadžikija
Ligure: Tajikistan
Limburgs: Tadzjikistan
lingála: Tazikistáni
Lingua Franca Nova: Tadjicistan
Livvinkarjala: Tadžikistuanu
lumbaart: Tagikistan
македонски: Таџикистан
მარგალური: ტაჯიკეთი
مازِرونی: تاجیکستان
Bahasa Melayu: Tajikistan
Baso Minangkabau: Tajikistan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tajikistan
мокшень: Таджикистан
монгол: Тажик улс
Nāhuatl: Tayiquistan
Dorerin Naoero: Tadjikitan
Nederlands: Tadzjikistan
नेपाल भाषा: ताजिकिस्तान
нохчийн: Таджикистан
Nordfriisk: Tadjikistaan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Tajikistaan
norsk nynorsk: Tadsjikistan
Novial: Tajikistan
occitan: Tatgiquistan
олык марий: Таджикистан
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tojikiston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਾਜਿਕਸਤਾਨ
پنجابی: تاجکستان
Papiamentu: Tajikistan
Patois: Tajikistan
Перем Коми: Таджикистан
ភាសាខ្មែរ: តាជីគីស្ថាន
Piemontèis: Tagikistan
Plattdüütsch: Tadschikistan
polski: Tadżykistan
português: Tajiquistão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Ta'jikistan
qırımtatarca: Tacikistan
română: Tadjikistan
Runa Simi: Tayiksuyu
русиньскый: Таджікістан
русский: Таджикистан
саха тыла: Тадьикистаан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱟᱡᱤᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Tajikistan
संस्कृतम्: ताजिकिस्थान
sardu: Tagikistan
Scots: Tajikistan
sicilianu: Tagikistan
Simple English: Tajikistan
SiSwati: IThajiki
slovenčina: Tadžikistan
slovenščina: Tadžikistan
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Таджикистанъ
ślůnski: Tadżykistůn
Soomaaliga: Tadsjikistan
کوردی: تاجیکستان
српски / srpski: Таџикистан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Tadžikistan
Basa Sunda: Tajikistan
svenska: Tadzjikistan
Tagalog: Tajikistan
Taqbaylit: Ṭajikstan
татарча/tatarça: Таҗикстан
тоҷикӣ: Тоҷикистон
Türkçe: Tacikistan
Türkmençe: Täjigistan
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Tajikistan
українська: Таджикистан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تاجىكىستان
Vahcuengh: Tajikistan
vepsän kel’: Tadžikistan
Tiếng Việt: Tajikistan
Volapük: Tacikistän
文言: 塔吉克
West-Vlams: Tadzjikistan
Winaray: Tayikistan
Yorùbá: Tajikistan
粵語: 塔吉克
Zazaki: Tacikıstan
Zeêuws: Tadzjikistan
žemaitėška: Tadžikistans