Taiwan

Republic of China

Anthem: 

Flag anthem
a map of East Asia, with a world map insert, with the island of Taiwan shaded and the other islands circled
CapitalTaipei[1]
25°02′N 121°38′E / 25°02′N 121°38′E / 25.033; 121.633
Demonym(s)Taiwanese[8]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen
Chen Chien-jen
• Premier
William Lai
Shih Jun-ji
• Speaker
Su Jia-chyuan
Tsai Chi-chang
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
Formation
10 October 1911
1 January 1912
25 October 1945
25 December 1947
7 December 1949
Area
• Total
36,197[9] km2 (13,976 sq mi)
Population
• 2018 estimate
23,577,271[10] (53rd)
• 2010 census
23,123,866[11] (53rd)
• Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (17th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.250 trillion[12]
• Per capita
$52,960[12]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$603 billion[12]
• Per capita
$25,534[12]
Gini (2014)33.6[13]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.907[c]
very high · 21st
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Date format
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD

Taiwan (n/ (About this soundlisten), UK also n/), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.[18][19][20] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations.

The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty. Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate government of China, its effective jurisdiction had, since the loss of Hainan in 1950, been limited to Taiwan and several small islands, with the main island making up 99% of its de facto territory. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC represented China at the UN until 1971, when it lost its seat to the PRC.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, healthcare,[21] public education, economic freedom, and human development.[c][22] The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[23][24]

The PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China policy the PRC refuses diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC. Today, 17 countries maintain official ties with the ROC but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Although Taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification or Taiwanese independence, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. The PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible.[25] The PRC and ROC standoff dates from the Chinese Civil War and has extended through the first, second and third Taiwan Strait crises to the present day.

Etymology

Taiwan
Taiwan (Chinese characters).svg
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese臺灣 or 台灣
Simplified Chinese台湾
PostalTaiwan
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
Тайвань
Mongolian script ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠨᠢ
Japanese name
Kanji台湾
Kanaたいわん
Kyūjitai臺灣
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡨᠠᡳᠸᠠᠨ
RomanizationTaiwan
Republic of China
ROC (Chinese characters).svg
"Republic of China" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese中華民國
Simplified Chinese中华民国
PostalChunghwa Minkuo
China
Traditional Chinese中國
Simplified Chinese中国
Literal meaningMiddle or Central State[26]
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་དམངས་གཙོའི།
་རྒྱལ་ཁབ
Zhuang name
ZhuangCunghvaz Minzgoz
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic
Дундад улс
Mongolian script China in Mongolian.svg
Uyghur name
Uyghur
جۇڭخۇا مىنگو
Manchu name
Manchu script Dulimbai Gurun
RomanizationDulimbai Gurun

Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period. The name Formosa (福爾摩沙) dates from 1542,[verification needed] when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa ("beautiful island").[27][28] The name "Formosa" eventually "replaced all others in European literature"[29] and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century.[30]

In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (modern-day Anping, Tainan) on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan",[31] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Tayowan, Teijoan, etc.[32] This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, Hokkien, as Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tāi-oân/Tâi-oân) as the name of the sandbar and nearby area (Tainan). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (大員, 大圓, 大灣, 臺員, 臺圓 and 臺窩灣) in Chinese historical records. The area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name (臺灣) was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".[33][34][35][36]

In his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349), Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu.[37] Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name Ryūkyū is the Japanese form of Liúqiú. The name also appears in the Book of Sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon.[38]

The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" (Zhōngguó (中國)) to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"),[d] a term which also developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne,[e] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era.[40] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was commonly referred to as "Nationalist China" (or "Free China") to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or "Red China").[42] It was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become commonly known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially ROC government publications, the name is written as "Republic of China (Taiwan)", "Republic of China/Taiwan", or sometimes "Taiwan (ROC)."[43] The Republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name "Chinese Taipei" due to diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since 1984, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.[44]

Other Languages
Acèh: Taiwan
Afrikaans: Republiek China
Alemannisch: Republik China
العربية: تايوان
অসমীয়া: টাইৱান
Avañe'ẽ: Taiuã
azərbaycanca: Çin Respublikası
تۆرکجه: تایوان
বাংলা: তাইওয়ান
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok
беларуская: Тайвань
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рэспубліка Кітай
भोजपुरी: ताइवान
Bikol Central: Taiwan
български: Република Китай
Boarisch: Republik Kina
བོད་ཡིག: ཐའེ་ཝན།
bosanski: Tajvan
brezhoneg: Republik Sina
Чӑвашла: Тайвань
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Taiwán
chiShona: Taiwan
Cymraeg: Taiwan
dansk: Taiwan
davvisámegiella: Taiwan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖުމްހޫރީ ޗައިނާ
dolnoserbski: Republika Chinskeje
डोटेली: ताइवान
ཇོང་ཁ: ཏའི་ཝཱན་
Esperanto: Tajvano
euskara: Taiwan
eʋegbe: Taiwan
فارسی: تایوان
Fiji Hindi: Republic of China
føroyskt: Taivan
français: Taïwan
Frysk: Taiwan
Gaeilge: An Téaváin
galego: Taiwán
贛語: 中華民國
ગુજરાતી: ચીની ગણતંત્ર
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: तैवान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chûng-fà Mìn-koet
хальмг: Китдин Орн
한국어: 중화민국
հայերեն: Թայվան
hornjoserbsce: Chinska republika
hrvatski: Republika Kina
Ilokano: Taiwan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তাইৱান
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Tiongkok
interlingua: Republica de China
Interlingue: Taiwan
íslenska: Taívan
italiano: Taiwan
עברית: טאיוואן
Basa Jawa: Républik Cina
Kabɩyɛ: Tayɩwanɩ
ქართული: ტაივანი
kaszëbsczi: Tajwan
қазақша: Тайвань
kernowek: Taywan
Kinyarwanda: Tayiwani
Kiswahili: Jamhuri ya China
Kreyòl ayisyen: Taywann
kurdî: Taywan
Кыргызча: Тайвань
لۊری شومالی: تایڤان
Lëtzebuergesch: Republik China (Taiwan)
lietuvių: Taivanas
Ligure: Taiwan
Limburgs: Taiwan
lingála: Taiwan
Lingua Franca Nova: Taiuan
lumbaart: Taiwan
मैथिली: ताइवान
македонски: Република Кина
Malagasy: Taiwan
മലയാളം: തായ്‌വാൻ
Māori: Taiwana
მარგალური: ტაივანი
مصرى: تايوان
مازِرونی: تایوان
Baso Minangkabau: Taiwan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók
монгол: Тайвань
Dorerin Naoero: Republik Tsiene
Nederlands: Taiwan
नेपाली: ताइवान
日本語: 中華民国
нохчийн: Тайвань
Nordfriisk: Taiwan (republiik)
Norfuk / Pitkern: Repablik o' Shiina
norsk nynorsk: Republikken Kina
олык марий: Тайвань
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ତାଇୱାନ
Oshiwambo: Taiwan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy Respublikasi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਾਈਵਾਨ
पालि: तैवान
پنجابی: تائیوان
Papiamentu: Republika di China
ភាសាខ្មែរ: តៃវ៉ាន់
Picard: Taïwan
Piemontèis: Taiwan
Plattdüütsch: Republiek China
português: Taiwan
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tayvan
qırımtatarca: Çin Cumhuriyeti
română: Taiwan
Runa Simi: Chunwa Republika
русиньскый: Тайван
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱟᱭᱣᱟᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Saina Taipei
संस्कृतम्: तैवान
Seeltersk: Republik China
sicilianu: Taiwan
සිංහල: තායිවානය
Simple English: Republic of China
SiSwati: IThayiwani
slovenčina: Taiwan
slovenščina: Tajvan
Soomaaliga: Taywan
کوردی: تایوان
српски / srpski: Република Кина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Republika Kina
Basa Sunda: Républik Tiongkok
suomi: Taiwan
svenska: Taiwan
Tagalog: Taiwan
татарча/tatarça: Кытай Җөмһүрияте
తెలుగు: తైవాన్
tetun: Taiwán
ትግርኛ: ታይዋን
тоҷикӣ: Тайван
Tsetsêhestâhese: Republic of China
Türkçe: Tayvan
Türkmençe: Taýwan
удмурт: Тайвань
українська: Республіка Китай
اردو: تائیوان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تەيۋەن
Vahcuengh: Cunghvaz Minzgoz
Tiếng Việt: Đài Loan
Volapük: Tayvän
文言: 中華民國
West-Vlams: Taiwan
Wolof: Taaywaan
吴语: 中华民国
粵語: 中華民國
Zeêuws: Taiwan
中文: 中華民國