Republic of China

中華民國  (Chinese)[I]

a map of East Asia, with a world map insert, with the island of Taiwan shaded and the other islands circled
StatusNon-UN state
25°04′N 121°31′E / 25°04′N 121°31′E / 25.067; 121.517
Largest cityNew Taipei
National languages[b]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen
• Premier
Su Tseng-chang
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
1 January 1912
25 October 1945
25 December 1947
7 December 1949
• Total
36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)[5]
• 2018 estimate
23,780,452[6] (53rd)
• 2010 census
23,123,866[7] (53rd)
• Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (17th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $1,300 bn[8]
• Per capita
Increase $55,078[8]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $586.104 bn[8]
• Per capita
Decrease $24,828[8]
Gini (2017)Negative increase 34.1[9]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.908[c]
very high · 21st
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Date format
Mains electricity110 V–60 Hz[d]
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD

Taiwan,[II] officially the Republic of China[I] (ROC), is a state in East Asia.[14][15][16] Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the north-west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south. The island of Taiwan has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. Taipei is the capital and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.7 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated states, and is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).

Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island of Taiwan around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, Dutch rule opened the island to mass Han immigration. After the brief Kingdom of Tungning in parts of the southern and western areas of the island, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the World War II Allies. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communist Party of China and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and numerous smaller islands. In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialisation called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system.

Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world, with major contributions from steel, machinery, electronics and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country,[17][18] ranking 15th in GDP per capita. It is ranked highly in terms of political and civil liberties,[19] education, health care[20] and human development.[c][21]

The political status of Taiwan remains uncertain. The ROC is no longer a member of the UN, having been replaced by the PRC in 1971. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official ties with 14 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See.[22][23] International organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only on a non-state basis. Taiwan is a member of the World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Asian Development Bank under various names. Nearby countries and countries with large economies maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Domestically, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting Taiwanese identity, although both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.[24][25]


Taiwan (Chinese characters).svg
"Taiwan" in Traditional Chinese characters (top) and Simplified Chinese characters (bottom)
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese臺灣 or 台灣
Simplified Chinese台湾
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicТайвань
Mongolian scriptᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠨᠢ
Japanese name
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡨᠠᡳᠸᠠᠨ
Republic of China
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese中華民國
PostalChunghwa Minkuo
Traditional Chinese中國
Literal meaningMiddle or Central State[26]
Tibetan name
Zhuang name
ZhuangCunghvaz Minzgoz
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicДундад иргэн улс
Mongolian scriptᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ
Uyghur name
Uyghurجۇڭخۇا مىنگو
Manchu name
Manchu scriptDulimbai Gurun
RomanizationDulimbai Gurun

Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period. The name Formosa (福爾摩沙) dates from 1542,[verification needed] when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa ("beautiful island").[27][28] The name Formosa eventually "replaced all others in European literature"[attribution needed][29] and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century.[30]

In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia (modern-day Anping, Tainan) on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan",[31] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Tayowan, Teijoan, etc.[32] This name was also adopted into the Chinese vernacular (in particular, Hokkien, as Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tāi-oân/Tâi-oân) as the name of the sandbar and nearby area (Tainan). The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, which is seen in various forms (大員, 大圓, 大灣, 臺員, 臺圓 and 臺窩灣) in Chinese historical records. The area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887.

Use of the current Chinese name (臺灣) became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".[33][34][35][36]

In his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349), Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu.[37] Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; indeed the name Ryūkyū is the Japanese form of Liúqiú. The name also appears in the Book of Sui (636) and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon.[38]

The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" (Zhōngguó (中國)) to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"),[e] a term which also developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne,[f] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era.[40]

During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was commonly referred to as "Nationalist China" (or "Free China") to differentiate it from "Communist China" (or "Red China").[42]

It was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become commonly known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts, especially ROC government publications, the name is written as "Republic of China (Taiwan)", "Republic of China/Taiwan", or sometimes "Taiwan (ROC)".[43]

The Republic of China participates in most international forums and organizations under the name "Chinese Taipei" due to diplomatic pressure from the People's Republic of China. For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since 1984, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.[44]

Other Languages
Acèh: Taiwan
Afrikaans: Republiek China
Alemannisch: Republik China
العربية: تايوان
অসমীয়া: টাইৱান
Avañe'ẽ: Taiuã
azərbaycanca: Çin Respublikası
تۆرکجه: تایوان
বাংলা: তাইওয়ান
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok
Basa Banyumasan: Taiwan
беларуская: Тайвань
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рэспубліка Кітай
भोजपुरी: ताइवान
Bikol Central: Taiwan
български: Република Китай
Boarisch: Republik Kina
བོད་ཡིག: ཐའེ་ཝན།
bosanski: Tajvan
brezhoneg: Republik Sina
Чӑвашла: Тайвань
čeština: Tchaj-wan
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Taiwán
chiShona: Taiwan
Cymraeg: Taiwan
dansk: Taiwan
davvisámegiella: Taiwan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖުމްހޫރީ ޗައިނާ
dolnoserbski: Republika Chinskeje
डोटेली: ताइवान
ཇོང་ཁ: ཏའི་ཝཱན་
eesti: Taiwan
Esperanto: Tajvano
euskara: Taiwan
eʋegbe: Taiwan
فارسی: تایوان
Fiji Hindi: Republic of China
føroyskt: Taivan
français: Taïwan
Frysk: Taiwan
Gaeilge: An Téaváin
galego: Taiwán
贛語: 中華民國
ગુજરાતી: ચીની ગણતંત્ર
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍄𐌰𐌹̈𐍅𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: तैवान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chûng-fà Mìn-koet
хальмг: Китдин Орн
한국어: 중화민국
Hawaiʻi: Taiuana
հայերեն: Թայվան
hornjoserbsce: Chinska republika
hrvatski: Republika Kina
Ilokano: Taiwan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: তাইৱান
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Tiongkok
interlingua: Republica de China
Interlingue: Taiwan
íslenska: Taívan
italiano: Taiwan
עברית: טאיוואן
Kabɩyɛ: Tayɩwanɩ
ქართული: ტაივანი
kaszëbsczi: Tajwan
kernowek: Taywan
Kinyarwanda: Tayiwani
Kiswahili: Jamhuri ya China
Kreyòl ayisyen: Taywann
kurdî: Taywan
Кыргызча: Тайвань
لۊری شومالی: تایڤان
Lëtzebuergesch: Republik China (Taiwan)
lietuvių: Taivanas
Ligure: Taiwan
Limburgs: Taiwan
lingála: Taiwan
Lingua Franca Nova: Taiuan
lumbaart: Taiwan
मैथिली: ताइवान
македонски: Република Кина
Malagasy: Taiwan
മലയാളം: തായ്‌വാൻ
Māori: Taiwana
მარგალური: ტაივანი
مصرى: تايوان
مازِرونی: تایوان
Minangkabau: Taiwan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók
монгол: Тайвань
Dorerin Naoero: Republik Tsiene
Nederlands: Taiwan
नेपाली: ताइवान
日本語: 中華民国
нохчийн: Тайвань
Nordfriisk: Taiwan (republiik)
Norfuk / Pitkern: Repablik o' Shiina
norsk nynorsk: Republikken Kina
олык марий: Тайвань
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ତାଇୱାନ
Oshiwambo: Taiwan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy Respublikasi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਾਈਵਾਨ
पालि: तैवान
Pälzisch: Taiwan
پنجابی: تائیوان
Papiamentu: Republika di China
پښتو: تایوان
ភាសាខ្មែរ: តៃវ៉ាន់
Picard: Taïwan
Piemontèis: Taiwan
Plattdüütsch: Republiek China
português: Taiwan
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tayvan
qırımtatarca: Çin Cumhuriyeti
română: Taiwan
Runa Simi: Chunwa Republika
русиньскый: Тайван
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱛᱟᱭᱣᱟᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Saina Taipei
संस्कृतम्: तैवान
sardu: Taiwan
Seeltersk: Republik China
sicilianu: Taiwan
සිංහල: තායිවානය
Simple English: Republic of China
SiSwati: IThayiwani
slovenčina: Taiwan
slovenščina: Tajvan
Soomaaliga: Taywan
کوردی: تایوان
српски / srpski: Република Кина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Republika Kina
suomi: Taiwan
svenska: Taiwan
Tagalog: Taiwan
தமிழ்: தைவான்
татарча/tatarça: Кытай Җөмһүрияте
తెలుగు: తైవాన్
tetun: Taiwán
ትግርኛ: ታይዋን
тоҷикӣ: Тайван
Tsetsêhestâhese: Republic of China
Türkçe: Tayvan
Türkmençe: Taýwan
удмурт: Тайвань
українська: Республіка Китай
اردو: تائیوان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تەيۋەن
Vahcuengh: Cunghvaz Minzgoz
Tiếng Việt: Đài Loan
Volapük: Tayvän
文言: 中華民國
West-Vlams: Taiwan
Wolof: Taaywaan
吴语: 中华民国
粵語: 中華民國
Zeêuws: Taiwan
žemaitėška: Taivans
中文: 中華民國
kriyòl gwiyannen: Taywan