Syrian Arab Republic

الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic)
al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah
Anthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic)
"Humat ad-Diyar"
(English: "Guardians of the Homeland")
Location of Syria
Location of Syria
and largest city
33°30′N 36°18′E / 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500; 36.300
Official languagesArabic
Ethnic groups
85% Islam
11% Christianity
4% Druzism[1][2]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic[3]
• President
Bashar al-Assad
Imad Khamis
Hammouda Sabbagh
LegislaturePeople's Council
• Proclamation of Arab Kingdom of Syria
8 March 1920
• State of Syria established under French Mandate
1 December 1924
• Syrian Republic established by merger of States of Jabal Druze, Alawites and Syria
• Independence de jure (Joint UN / French Mandate ended)
24 October 1945
• Syrian Republic (1946–1963) independent
(French troops leave)
17 April 1946
28 September 1961
8 March 1963
27 February 2012
• Total
185,180[4] km2 (71,500 sq mi) (87th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Increase 18,499,181 (63rd)
• 2010 census
• Density
118.3/km2 (306.4/sq mi) (70th)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
$50.28 billion[5]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2014 estimate
• Total
$24.6 billion[5]
• Per capita
Gini (2014)55.8[6]
HDI (2018)Steady 0.536[7]
low · 155th
CurrencySyrian pound (SYP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+963
ISO 3166 codeSY

Syria (Arabic: سوريا‎, romanizedSūriyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎, romanizedal-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians,[8] Mandeans[9] and Turkemens. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunnis make up the largest religious group in Syria.

Syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses Ba'athism. It is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it has become suspended from the Arab League in November 2011[10] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,[11] and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.[12]

In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (The region of Syria, known in Arabic as al-Sham), while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[13] In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The modern Syrian state was established in the mid-20th century after centuries of Ottoman and a brief period French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces. It gained de jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. The republic was renamed into the Arab Republic of Syria in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, and was increasingly unstable until the 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad,[14] who was in office from 1971 to 2000.

Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise. As a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Syrian territory, including the Syrian opposition, Rojava, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Syria is ranked last on the Global Peace Index, making it the most violent country in the world due to the war, although life continues normally for most of its citizens as of December 2017. The war caused more than 470,000 deaths (February 2016 SCPR estimate),[15] 7.6 million internally displaced people (July 2015 UNHCR estimate) and over 5 million refugees (July 2017 registered by UNHCR),[16] making population assessment difficult in recent years.


Several sources indicate that the name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term "Sura/i", and the derivative ancient Greek name: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, both of which originally derived from Aššūrāyu (Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia.[17][18] However, from the Seleucid Empire (323–150 BC), this term was also applied to The Levant, and from this point the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and Arameans of the Levant.[19][20] Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favors the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur.[21] The Greek name appears to correspond to Phoenician ʾšr "Assur", ʾšrym "Assyrians", recorded in the 8th century BC Çineköy inscription.[22]

The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, between Arabia to the south and Asia Minor to the north, stretching inland to include parts of Iraq, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene.[23]

By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern-day Israel, the Palestinian Territories, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest; Phoenice (established in 194 AD) corresponding to modern Lebanon, Damascus and Homs regions; Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Iraq.[24]

Other Languages
Acèh: Suriyah
Адыгэбзэ: Шам
адыгабзэ: Сирие
Afrikaans: Sirië
Alemannisch: Syrien
አማርኛ: ሶርያ
Ænglisc: Syria
Аҧсшәа: Шьамтәыла
العربية: سوريا
aragonés: Siria
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܘܪܝܐ
arpetan: Sirie
অসমীয়া: ছিৰিয়া
asturianu: Siria
Avañe'ẽ: Síria
авар: Шам
azərbaycanca: Suriya
تۆرکجه: سوریه
bamanankan: Suriya
বাংলা: সিরিয়া
Bân-lâm-gú: Su-lī-a
башҡортса: Сүриә
беларуская: Сірыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сырыя
भोजपुरी: सीरिया
Bikol Central: Sirya
български: Сирия
Boarisch: Syrien
བོད་ཡིག: སི་རི་ཡ།
bosanski: Sirija
brezhoneg: Siria
буряад: Сири
Чӑвашла: Сири
Cebuano: Siria
čeština: Sýrie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Siria
chiShona: Syria
chiTumbuka: Syria
corsu: Siria
Cymraeg: Syria
dansk: Syrien
davvisámegiella: Syria
Deutsch: Syrien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސޫރިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Syriska
डोटेली: सीरिया
eesti: Süüria
Ελληνικά: Συρία
español: Siria
Esperanto: Sirio
estremeñu: Siria
euskara: Siria
فارسی: سوریه
Fiji Hindi: Syria (des)
føroyskt: Sýria
français: Syrie
Frysk: Syrje
Gaeilge: An tSiria
Gaelg: Yn Teer
Gagauz: Siriya
Gàidhlig: Siria
galego: Siria
Gĩkũyũ: Syria
گیلکی: سوری
ગુજરાતી: સિરિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सीरिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Si-li-â
한국어: 시리아
Hausa: Siriya
Hawaiʻi: Suria
հայերեն: Սիրիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Սուրիա
हिन्दी: सीरिया
hornjoserbsce: Syriska
hrvatski: Sirija
Ido: Siria
Ilokano: Siria
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সিরিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Suriah
interlingua: Syria
Interlingue: Siria
Ирон: Сири
íslenska: Sýrland
italiano: Siria
עברית: סוריה
Jawa: Suriah
Kabɩyɛ: Siirii
kalaallisut: Syria
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿರಿಯಾ
Kapampangan: Siria
ქართული: სირია
қазақша: Сирия
kernowek: Syri
Kinyarwanda: Siriya
Kiswahili: Syria
коми: Сирия
Kongo: Syria
Kreyòl ayisyen: Siri
kurdî: Sûrî
Кыргызча: Сирия
Ladino: Surya
لۊری شومالی: سۊریٱ
Latina: Syria
latviešu: Sīrija
Lëtzebuergesch: Syrien
лезги: Сирия
lietuvių: Sirija
Ligure: Sciria
Limburgs: Syrië
lingála: Sirí
Lingua Franca Nova: Suria
Livvinkarjala: Sirii
la .lojban.: sixygu'e
lumbaart: Siria
magyar: Szíria
मैथिली: सीरिया
македонски: Сирија
Malagasy: Siria
മലയാളം: സിറിയ
मराठी: सीरिया
მარგალური: სირია
مصرى: سوريا
مازِرونی: سوریه
Bahasa Melayu: Syria
Baso Minangkabau: Suriah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sê̤ṳ-lé-ā
мокшень: Сирие
монгол: Сири
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆီးရီးယားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Siria
Dorerin Naoero: Syria
Nederlands: Syrië
Nedersaksies: Syrië
नेपाली: सीरिया
नेपाल भाषा: सिरिया
日本語: シリア
нохчийн: Шема
Nordfriisk: Syrien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Siriya
norsk: Syria
norsk nynorsk: Syria
Novial: Siria
occitan: Siria
олык марий: Сирий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସିରିଆ
Oromoo: Siiriyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Suriya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੀਰੀਆ
पालि: सिरिया
پنجابی: شام
Papiamentu: Syria
پښتو: سوريه
Patois: Siria
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ស៊ីរី
Picard: Sirie
Piemontèis: Siria
Tok Pisin: Syria
Plattdüütsch: Syrien
polski: Syria
Ποντιακά: Συρία
português: Síria
Qaraqalpaqsha: Siriya
qırımtatarca: Suriye
română: Siria
Runa Simi: Sirya
русиньскый: Сирия
русский: Сирия
саха тыла: Сирия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱤᱨᱤᱭᱟ
संस्कृतम्: सिरिया
sardu: Siria
Scots: Sirie
shqip: Siria
sicilianu: Siria
සිංහල: සිරියාව
Simple English: Syria
سنڌي: شام
SiSwati: ISiriya
slovenčina: Sýria
slovenščina: Sirija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Сѷрїꙗ
ślůnski: Syryjo
Soomaaliga: Suuriya
کوردی: سووریا
српски / srpski: Сирија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sirija
Basa Sunda: Suriah
suomi: Syyria
svenska: Syrien
Tagalog: Syria
தமிழ்: சிரியா
Taqbaylit: Surya
татарча/tatarça: Сүрия
తెలుగు: సిరియా
tetun: Síria
ትግርኛ: ሱርያ
тоҷикӣ: Сурия
Türkçe: Suriye
Türkmençe: Siriýa
Twi: Syria
удмурт: Сирия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Suriah
українська: Сирія
اردو: سوریہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سۇرىيە
Vahcuengh: Syria
vepsän kel’: Sirii
Tiếng Việt: Syria
Volapük: Süriyän
Võro: Süüria
walon: Sireye
文言: 敘利亞
West-Vlams: Syrië
Winaray: Sirya
Wolof: Siri
吴语: 叙利亚
Xitsonga: Syria
ייִדיש: סיריע
Yorùbá: Síríà
粵語: 敘利亞
Zazaki: Suriya
Zeêuws: Syrië
žemaitėška: Sėrėjė
中文: 叙利亚