Swedish language

Swedish
svenska
Pronunciation[²svɛnːska]
Native toSweden, Finland, Estonia
EthnicitySwedes
Native speakers
9.6 million (2018)[1]
Early forms
Latin (Swedish alphabet)
Swedish Braille
Tecknad svenska (falling out of use)
Official status
Official language in
 Finland
 Sweden (sole official language)

 European Union
 Nordic Council
Regulated bySwedish Language Council (in Sweden)
Swedish Academy (in Sweden)
Institute for the Languages of Finland (in Finland)
Language codes
sv
swe
ISO 639-3swe
swed1254[2]
Linguasphere52-AAA-ck to -cw
Distribution-sv.png
Major Swedish-speaking areas
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Swedish (svenska [²svɛnːska] (About this soundlisten)) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

Standard Swedish, spoken by most Swedes, is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century. While distinct regional varieties descending from the older rural dialects still exist, the spoken and written language is uniform and standardized.

The standard word order is, as in most Germanic languages, V2, which means that the finite verb (V) appears in the second position (2) of a declarative main clause. Swedish morphology is similar to English; that is, words have comparatively few inflections. Swedish has two genders and is generally seen to have two grammatical casesnominative and genitive (except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form) – although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case, or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive s, then seen as a clitic. Swedish has two grammatical numbers – plural and singular. Adjectives have discrete comparative and superlative forms, and are also inflected according to gender, number and definiteness. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles. The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory. Swedish is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme.

Swedish has also had historic use in Estonia, although the current status of the Estonian Swedish speakers is almost extinct. Instead it is used in the Swedish diaspora most notably in Oslo, Norway with more than 50,000 resident Swedes.[3]

Classification

Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. In the established classification, it belongs to the East Scandinavian languages, together with Danish, separating it from the West Scandinavian languages, consisting of Faroese, Icelandic, and Norwegian. However, more recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into two groups: Insular Scandinavian (Faroese and Icelandic), and Continental Scandinavian (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish), based on mutual intelligibility due to heavy influence of East Scandinavian (particularly Danish) on Norwegian during the last millennium and divergence from both Faroese and Icelandic.[4]

By many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered dialects of a common Scandinavian language. However, because of several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between Denmark and Sweden, including a long series of wars from the 16th to 18th centuries, and the nationalist ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate orthographies, dictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies. Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a dialect continuum of Scandinavian (North Germanic), and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden, especially parts of Bohuslän, Dalsland, western Värmland, western Dalarna, Härjedalen, Jämtland, and Scania, could be described as intermediate dialects of the national standard languages.[4]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Шуэцэбзэ
Afrikaans: Sweeds
Alemannisch: Schwedische Sprache
አማርኛ: ስዊድንኛ
العربية: لغة سويدية
aragonés: Idioma sueco
arpetan: Suèdouès
asturianu: Idioma suecu
azərbaycanca: İsveç dili
تۆرکجه: سوئد دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Sūi-tián-gí
башҡортса: Швед теле
беларуская: Шведская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Швэдзкая мова
български: Шведски език
Boarisch: Schwedisch
bosanski: Švedski jezik
brezhoneg: Svedeg
буряад: Швед хэлэн
català: Suec
Чӑвашла: Швед чĕлхи
čeština: Švédština
Cymraeg: Swedeg
davvisámegiella: Ruoŧagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސުވެޑިޝް
dolnoserbski: Šwedšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Śvedéś
español: Idioma sueco
Esperanto: Sveda lingvo
euskara: Suediera
eʋegbe: Swedgbe
Fiji Hindi: Swedish bhasa
føroyskt: Svenskt mál
français: Suédois
Frysk: Sweedsk
Gaelg: Soolynnish
Gàidhlig: Suainis
galego: Lingua sueca
贛語: 瑞典語
ગુજરાતી: સ્વીડિશ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sui-tiên-ngî
한국어: 스웨덴어
հայերեն: Շվեդերեն
hornjoserbsce: Šwedšćina
hrvatski: Švedski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Swedia
interlingua: Lingua svedese
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᔅᕗᓐᔅᑭᑐᑦ
isiZulu: IsiSwidishi
íslenska: Sænska
italiano: Lingua svedese
עברית: שוודית
Basa Jawa: Basa Swèdhen
kalaallisut: Svenskisuut
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸ್ವೀಡಿಶ್
Kapampangan: Amanung Sweku
ქართული: შვედური ენა
қазақша: Швед тілі
kernowek: Swedek
Kiswahili: Kiswidi
коми: Швед кыв
Кыргызча: Швед тили
лакку: Швед маз
latviešu: Zviedru valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Schwedesch
lietuvių: Švedų kalba
Limburgs: Zweeds
Lingua Franca Nova: Svensce (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Ruočin kieli
lumbaart: Lengua svedesa
magyar: Svéd nyelv
македонски: Шведски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny soedoa
Māori: Reo Huitene
მარგალური: შვედური ნინა
مصرى: سويدى
مازِرونی: سوئدی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Sweden
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Swedia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sôi-diēng-ngṳ̄
мокшень: Шведонь кяль
монгол: Швед хэл
Nederlands: Zweeds
Nedersaksies: Zweeds
नेपाल भाषा: स्वीडिश भाषा
нохчийн: Шведийн мотт
Nordfriisk: Sweedsk
Norfuk / Pitkern: Swiidish
norsk: Svensk
norsk nynorsk: Svensk
Nouormand: Suédouais
occitan: Suedés
олык марий: Швед йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shved tili
پنجابی: سونسکا
Papiamentu: Sueko
Piemontèis: Lenga svedèisa
português: Língua sueca
Qaraqalpaqsha: Shved tili
qırımtatarca: İsveç tili
română: Limba suedeză
rumantsch: Lingua svedaisa
Runa Simi: Suwiri simi
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asuetena
Seeltersk: Swedisk
sicilianu: Lingua svidisa
Simple English: Swedish language
slovenčina: Švédčina
slovenščina: Švedščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Свєньскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Szwedzko godka
Soomaaliga: Af-Iswiidhan
српски / srpski: Шведски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Švedski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Swédia
svenska: Svenska
Tagalog: Wikang Suweko
татарча/tatarça: Швед теле
Türkçe: İsveççe
удмурт: Швед кыл
українська: Шведська мова
اردو: سونسکا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شۋېتسىيە تىلى
vepsän kel’: Ročin kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Thụy Điển
Volapük: Svedänapük
Winaray: Suweko
ייִדיש: שוועדיש
Yorùbá: Èdè Sweden
粵語: 瑞典話
Zazaki: İswecki
Zeêuws: Zweeds
žemaitėška: Švedu kalba
中文: 瑞典語