In 1861 the Indian High Courts Act 1861 was enacted to create high courts for various provinces and abolished supreme courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay and also the sadr adalats in presidency towns which had acted as the highest court in their respective regions. These new high courts had the distinction of being the highest courts for all cases till the creation of Federal Court of India under the Government of India Act 1935. The Federal Court had jurisdiction to solve disputes between provinces and federal states and hear appeal against judgements of the high courts. The first CJI of India was H. J. Kania.
The Supreme Court of India came into being on 26 January 1950. It replaced both the Federal Court of India and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which were then at the apex of the Indian court system. The first proceedings and inauguration, however took place on 28 January 1950, at 9.45 a.m, when the judges took their seats, and thus regarded as the official date of establishment.
Supreme court initially had its seat at Chamber of Princes in the parliament building where the previous Federal Court of India sat from 1937 to 1950. The first Chief Justice of India was H. J. Kania. In 1958, the supreme court moved to its present premises. Originally, the Constitution of India envisaged a supreme court with a chief justice and seven judges; leaving it to parliament to increase this number. In formative years, the supreme court met from 10 to 12 in the morning and then 2 to 4 in the afternoon for 28 days in a month.