Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen
孫中山 / 孫逸仙
other names
孙中山肖像.jpg
Portrait of Sun Yat-Sen in the 1910s
Provisional President of the Republic of China
In office
1 January 1912 – 10 March 1912
Vice PresidentLi Yuanhong
Preceded byPuyi (Emperor of China)
Succeeded byYuan Shikai
Premier of the Kuomintang
In office
10 October 1919 – 12 March 1925
Preceded byHimself (as Premier of the Chinese Revolutionary Party)
Succeeded byZhang Renjie (as chairman)
Personal details
BornSun Wen
(1866-11-12)12 November 1866
Cuiheng Village, Xiangshan County, Guangdong, Qing dynasty, China
Died12 March 1925(1925-03-12) (aged 58)
Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, Republic of China
Resting placeSun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing, Jiangsu
NationalityChinese
Political partyKuomintang
Other political
affiliations
Chinese Revolutionary Party
Spouse(s)Lu Muzhen (1885–1915)
Kaoru Otsuki (1903–1906)
Soong Ching-ling (1915–1925)
Domestic partnerChen Cuifen (concubine) (1892–1925)
Haru Asada (concubine)(1897–1902)
ChildrenSun Fo
Sun Yan
Sun Wan
ParentsSun Dacheng
Lady Yang
Alma materHong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (MD)
OccupationPhysician
politician
Revolutionary
writer
Calligrapher
ReligionCongregationalist
Signature (Chinese)孫文, Sun's signature in Chinese, from a piece of calligraphy in the National Palace Museum
Signature
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese孫逸仙
Simplified Chinese孙逸仙
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese孫中山
Simplified Chinese孙中山

Sun Yat-sen (n/; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)[1][2] was the founding father of the Republic of China. The first provisional president of the Republic of China, Sun was a Chinese physician, writer, philosopher, Georgist[3][4], calligrapher[5] and revolutionary. As the foremost pioneer and first leader of a Republican China, Sun is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China (ROC) and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty (the last imperial dynasty of China) during the years leading up to the Xinhai Revolution. He was appointed to serve as Provisional President of the Republic of China when it was founded in 1912. He later co-founded the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China), serving as its first leader.[6] Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and he remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan Strait.

Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution and the Han Chinese regaining power after 268 years of living under Manchurian rule (Qing dynasty), he quickly resigned from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China to Yuan Shikai, and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Chinese Communist Party, split into two factions after his death.

Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism (Han Chinese nationalism: independence from imperialist domination – taking back power from the Manchurian Qing dynasty), “rights of the people,” sometimes translated as “democracy,”[7] and the people's livelihood (just society).[8][9]

Names

Sun was born as Sun Wen (Cantonese: Syūn Màhn; 孫文), and his genealogical name was Sun Deming (Syūn Dāk-mìhng; 孫德明).[1][10] As a child, his pet name was Tai Tseung (Dai-jeuhng; 帝象).[1] Sun's courtesy name was Zaizhi (Jai-jī; 載之), and his baptized name was Rixin (Yaht-sān; 日新).[11] While at school in Hong Kong he got the art name Yat-sen (Chinese: 逸仙; pinyin: Yìxiān).[12] Sūn Zhōngshān (孫中山), the most popular of his Chinese names, is derived from his Japanese name Nakayama Shō (中山樵), the pseudonym given to him by Tōten Miyazaki while in hiding in Japan.[1]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Sun Yat-sen
አማርኛ: ሱን ያት ሰን
العربية: سون يات سين
aragonés: Sun Yat-sen
asturianu: Sun Yat-sen
Aymar aru: Sun Yat-sen
azərbaycanca: Sun Yatsen
Bân-lâm-gú: Sun Tiong-san
башҡортса: Сунь Ятсен
беларуская: Сунь Ятсен
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сунь Ятсэн
български: Сун Ятсен
bosanski: Sun Yat-sen
brezhoneg: Sun Yat-sen
català: Sun Yat-sen
Чӑвашла: Сунь Ятсен
čeština: Sunjatsen
Cymraeg: Sun Yat-sen
Deutsch: Sun Yat-sen
Ελληνικά: Σουν Γιατ-Σεν
español: Sun Yat-sen
Esperanto: Sun Jatsen
euskara: Sun Yat-sen
فارسی: سون یات سن
Fiji Hindi: Sun Yat-Sen
føroyskt: Sun Yat-sen
français: Sun Yat-sen
Gaeilge: Sun Yat-sen
galego: Sun Yat-sen
贛語: 孫中山
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sûn Chûng-sân
한국어: 쑨원
հայերեն: Սուն Յաթ-Սեն
हिन्दी: सुन यात-सेन
hornjoserbsce: Sun Jat-Sen
hrvatski: Sun Jat-sen
Ilokano: Sun Yat-sen
Bahasa Indonesia: Sun Yat-sen
íslenska: Sun Yat-sen
italiano: Sun Yat-sen
עברית: סון יאט-סן
Basa Jawa: Sun Yat Sen
ქართული: სუნ იატსენი
қазақша: Сунь Ятсен
Kiswahili: Sun Yat-sen
Latina: Sun Yat-sen
lietuvių: Sun Jatsenas
lumbaart: Sun Yat-Sen
मैथिली: सन यात सेन
Malagasy: Sun Yat-sen
മലയാളം: സൺ യാത്-സെൻ
მარგალური: სუნ იატსენი
Bahasa Melayu: Sun Yat-sen
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sŏng Dṳ̆ng-săng
монгол: Сунь Ятсен
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆွန်ယက်ဆင်
Nederlands: Sun Yat-sen
नेपाली: सन यात सेन
日本語: 孫文
нохчийн: Сунь Ятсен
norsk nynorsk: Sun Yat-sen
occitan: Sun Yat-sen
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sun Yat-sen
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੁਨ ਯਾਤ ਸਨ
پنجابی: سن یات سن
Piemontèis: Sun Yat-sen
polski: Sun Jat-sen
português: Sun Yat-sen
română: Sun Iat-sen
Runa Simi: Sun Yat-sen
русиньскый: Сун Ятсен
русский: Сунь Ятсен
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱟᱱ ᱤᱭᱟᱛ ᱥᱮᱱ
Simple English: Sun Yat-sen
slovenčina: Sunjatsen
slovenščina: Sun Jat-sen
српски / srpski: Сун Јат Сен
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sun Yat-sen
svenska: Sun Yat-sen
Tagalog: Sun Yat-sen
татарча/tatarça: Sün Yat-sen
Türkçe: Sun Yat-sen
українська: Сунь Ятсен
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سۇن جۇڭشەن
Vahcuengh: Sunh Cunghsanh
Tiếng Việt: Tôn Trung Sơn
文言: 孫文
Winaray: Sun Yat-sen
吴语: 孙中山
ייִדיש: סון יאט-סען
粵語: 孫文
žemaitėška: Sun Jatsens
中文: 孫中山