Sun Myung Moon

Sun Myung Moon
Rev. Sun Myung Moon speaks, Las Vegas, NV, USA on April 4, 2010.png
Moon in Las Vegas, Nevada, 4 April 2010
Born Mun Yong-myeong
(1920-02-25)25 February 1920
Chongju, North P'yŏng'an, Japanese Korea
(now North Pyongan, North Korea)
Died 3 September 2012(2012-09-03) (aged 92)
Gapyeong County, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
Nationality Korean
Occupation Religious leader, businessperson, media mogul, political activist
Known for Founder of Unification Church
Spouse(s) Choi Sun-kil (1944–1953)
Hak Ja Han (1960–2012)
Children 16
Korean name
Revised Romanization Mun Seon-myeong
McCune–Reischauer Mun Sŏnmyŏng
Birth name
Revised Romanization Mun Yong-myeong
McCune–Reischauer Mun Yongmyŏng

Sun Myung Moon ( Korean 문선명 Mun Seon-myeong; born Mun Yong-myeong; 25 February 1920 – 3 September 2012) was a Korean religious leader, also known for his support of business ventures and social and political causes. [1] [2] A messiah claimant, he was the founder of the Unification Church (members of which considered him and his wife Hak Ja Han to be their " True Parents"), [3] and of its widely noted "Blessing" or mass wedding ceremony, and the author of its unique theology the Divine Principle. [4] [5] [6] He was an ardent anti-communist and advocate for Korean reunification, for which he was recognized by the governments of both South and North Korea. [7] Businesses he promoted included News World Communications, an international news media corporation known for its American subsidiary The Washington Times, [8] [9] [10] and Tongil Group, a South Korean business group ( chaebol), [11] [12] [13] as well as various affiliated organizations. [1] [14]

Moon was born in what is now North Korea. When he was a child, his family converted to Christianity. [15] In 1947 he was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. [16] In 1954, he founded the Unification Church in Seoul, South Korea based on conservative, family-oriented teachings from new interpretations of the Bible. [15] [16] In 1971, he moved to the United States [17] and became well-known after giving a series of public speeches on his beliefs. [18] [19] In the 1982 case United States v. Sun Myung Moon he was found guilty of willfully filing false federal income tax returns and sentenced to 18 months in federal prison. His case generated protests from clergy and civil libertarians, who said that the trial was deemed biased against him. [20]

Critics labeled Moon a leader who made high demands on his followers. [21] [22] [23] His wedding ceremonies also drew criticism, especially after they involved members of other churches, including Roman Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo. [24] [25] He was also criticized for his relationships with political and religious figures, including Presidents of the United States Richard Nixon, [26] George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, [27] North Korean President Kim Il Sung, [28] and Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. [29]

Early life

Sun Myung Moon was born Moon Yong Myeong on 25 February 1920, in modern-day North P'yŏng'an Province, North Korea, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule. He was the younger of two sons in a farming family of eight children. [16] Moon's family followed Confucianist beliefs until he was around 10 years old, when they converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church. [30]

In 1941, Moon began studying electrical engineering at Waseda University in Japan. [21] During this time he cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. [31] In 1943, he returned to Seoul and married Sun Kil Choi on 28 April 1945. On 2 April 1946 their son, Sung Jin Moon was born. [1] Around this time he changed his given name to Sun Myung. [32]

Following World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel into two trusteeships: the United States and the Soviet Union. [23] [33] Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang [34] and all monks of Tokwon abbey. [35] [36] In 1947 Moon was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. [16] In 1950, during the Korean War United Nations troops had raided Hŭngnam and the guards fled. Moon escaped and traveled to Busan, South Korea. [37] [38] [39]

Other Languages
български: Сан Мьон Муун
čeština: Son-mjong Mun
español: Sun Myung Moon
Esperanto: Sun Myung Moon
français: Sun Myung Moon
한국어: 문선명
Bahasa Indonesia: Sun Myung Moon
italiano: Sun Myung Moon
Kapampangan: Sun Myung Moon
Nederlands: Sun Myung Moon
日本語: 文鮮明
português: Sun Myung Moon
română: Sun Myung Moon
русский: Мун Сон Мён
Simple English: Sun Myung Moon
српски / srpski: Сан Мјунг Мун
Türkçe: Sun Myung Moon
українська: Мун Сон Мьон
Tiếng Việt: Sun Myung Moon
中文: 文鲜明