Sulaymaniyah city montage
Sulaymaniyah city montage
Slemani is located in Iraqi Kurdistan
Slemani is located in Iraq
Coordinates: 35°33′26″N 45°26′08″E / 35°33′26″N 45°26′08″E /

Sulaymaniyah (Kurdish: سلێمانی‎ Silêmanî; Arabic: السليمانية‎, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan. It is surrounded by the Azmer Range, Goyija Range and the Qaiwan Range in the northeast, Baranan Mountain in the south and the Tasluja Hills in the west. The city has a semi-arid climate with very hot dry summers and cool wet winters. Sulaymaniyah served as the capital of the historic principality of Baban from 1784 to 1850.

The modern city of Sulaymaniyah was founded on 14 November 1784 by the Kurdish prince Ibrahim Pasha Baban who named it after his father Sulaiman Pasha.[3]

From its foundation Sulaymaniyah was always a center of great poets, writers, historians, politicians, scholars and singers, such as Nalî, Mahwi, and Piramerd.[4][5]

The city is known as the capital of enlightenment among the Kurds, but the official nickname of the city on national level is: Sulaimaniyah is the Paris of Iraq or the bride of Iraq´s cities.[6]


Stela of Iddi-Sin, King of Simurrum. It dates back to the Old-Babylonian Period. From Qarachatan Village, Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan. The Sulaymaniyah Museum, Iraq

The region of Sulaymaniyah was known as Zamwa prior to the foundation of the modern city in 1784. The capital of the Kurdish Baban principality (1649–1850), before Sulaymaniyah was a territory named "Qelaçiwalan". At the time of the Babani's rule there were major conflicts between the Safavid dynasty and the Ottoman Empire. Qelaçiwalan became a battleground for the two rivals.[7]

Being of strategic importance and lying deep inside Safavid territory, there was concern that Qelaçiwalan would be attacked and captured if the Babani did not give the Safavids military support, as both Sultan Mahmud II and Nader Shah were trying to gain the support of the dispersed Kurdish Emirates.[7] This obliged Mahmud Pasha of Baban in 1781 to think about moving the center of its Emirate to another safer place. He chose Melkendî, then a village but now a district in central Sulaymaniyah, to construct a number of Serahs for his political and armed units.[7]

In 1783, Ibrahim Pasha of Baban became ruler of the Emirate and began the construction of a new city which would become the capital of the Baban Emirate. In 1784 he finished erecting a number of palaces for trade called Qeyserîs and bazaars, which were also used as baths, and began inviting people from the surrounding villages and Emirates to move to the newly established city. Soon Melkendî, which was originally intended to be the city itself, instead became one of its quarters and still is today.[7] The new city of Sulaymaniyah was named after Sulaiman Baba who was the first Baban prince to gain control of the province of Shahrizor and its capital, Kirkuk. Sulaiman Baba invaded Iran, defeating forces from the principality of Ardalan in 1694. Ottoman Sultan Mustafa II assigned him the district of Baban, which included the town of Kirkuk.[8]

In the early 1800s refugees from Ardalan moved to Sulaymaniyah including Mastura Ardalan, the widow of Khasraw Khani Ardalan, the ruler of the kingdom. Ardalan wrote an account of Kurdish history in Persian and was buried in Sulaymaniyah when he died in 1848.[9]

From 1922 to 1924, Sulaymaniyah was designated the capital of the Kingdom of Kurdistan, a short lived unrecognized State declared by Iraqi Kurds following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sulaymaniyah
العربية: السليمانية
беларуская: Сулейманія
български: Сулеймания
català: Sulaymaniyya
čeština: Sulejmánie
Deutsch: Sulaimaniyya
Ελληνικά: Σουλεϊμανίγια
español: Solimania
Esperanto: Sulajmanija
euskara: Sulaimaniya
فارسی: سلیمانیه
français: Souleimaniye
Bahasa Indonesia: As-Sulaimaniyah
italiano: Sulaymaniyya
עברית: סולימאניה
Basa Jawa: Sulaymaniyah
ქართული: სულეიმანია
kurdî: Silêmanî
lietuvių: Suleimanija
مازِرونی: سلیمانیه
Bahasa Melayu: As-Sulaimaniyah
Dorerin Naoero: Sulaymaniyah
Nederlands: Suleimaniya
norsk: Suleimania
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sulaymoniya
پنجابی: سلێمانی
português: Suleimânia
română: As Sulaymaniyah
русский: Сулеймания
Simple English: Sulaymaniyah
کوردی: سلێمانی
svenska: Sulaymaniyya
தமிழ்: சுலமனியா
українська: Сулейманія (місто)
Winaray: Sulamaniya
Zazaki: Sılêmaniya