Sukarno

Dr.(H.C.) Ir. H.
Sukarno
ꦯꦸꦏꦂꦤ
Presiden Sukarno.jpg
Sukarno in 1949
1st President of Indonesia
In office
18 August 1945 – 12 March 1967
Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir
Amir Sjarifuddin
Muhammad Hatta
Abdul Halim
Muhammad Natsir
Soekiman Wirjosandjojo
Wilopo
Ali Sastroamidjojo
Burhanuddin Harahap
Djuanda Kartawidjaja
Vice President Mohammad Hatta (until 1956)
Preceded by position established
Succeeded by Suharto
Prime Minister of Indonesia as President of Indonesia For Life
In office
9 July 1959 – 25 July 1966
President Himself
Preceded by Djuanda Kartawidjaja
Succeeded by Post abolished
Personal details
Born (1901-06-06)6 June 1901
Surabaya, East Java, Dutch East Indies [1]
Died 21 June 1970(1970-06-21) (aged 69)
Jakarta, Indonesia
Political party Indonesian National Party
Height 1.72 m (5 ft 8 in)
Spouse(s) Oetari
Inggit Garnasih
Fatmawati (m. 1943–1960)
Hartini
Kartini Manoppo
Naoko Nemoto (Dewi Sukarno) (m. 1960–1970, his death)
Haryati
Yurike Sanger
Heldy Djafar
Children
Parents
Alma mater Bandung Institute of Technology
Signature

Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; Javanese: ꦯꦸꦏꦂꦤ; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) [2] was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.

Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands. He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno was appointed as first president. He led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch acknowledgement of Indonesian independence in 1949. Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer once wrote "Sukarno was the only Asian leader of the modern era able to unify people of such differing ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds without shedding a drop of blood." [3]

After a chaotic period of parliamentary democracy, Sukarno established an autocratic system called " Guided Democracy" in 1957 that successfully ended the instability and rebellions which were threatening the survival of the diverse and fractious country. The early 1960s saw Sukarno veering Indonesia to the left by providing support and protection to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) to the irritation of the military and Islamists. He also embarked on a series of aggressive foreign policies under the rubric of anti-imperialism, with aid from the Soviet Union and China. The 30 September Movement (1965) led to the destruction of the PKI and his replacement in 1967 by one of his generals, Suharto (see Transition to the New Order), and he remained under house arrest until his death.

Name

The spelling Soekarno, based on Dutch orthography, is still frequently used, mainly because he signed his name in the old spelling. Sukarno himself insisted on a "u", not "oe", but said that he had been told in school to use the Dutch style. He said that it was too difficult to change his signature, so still wrote it with an "oe". [4] Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947–1968, however, printed his name using the 1947 spelling. The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport which serves near Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, still uses the Dutch spelling.

Indonesians also remember him as Bung Karno (Brother/Comrade Karno) or Pak Karno ("Mr. Karno"). [5] Like many Javanese people, he had only one name. [6] According to author Pramoedya Ananta Toer in several interviews, "bung" is an affectionate title meaning "friend" creatively used to be an alternative way of addressing person in equal manner, as an opposite word of old-form "tuan", "mas" or "bang".

He is sometimes referred to in foreign accounts as "Achmad Sukarno", or some variation thereof. The fictitious first name may have been added by western journalists confused over someone with just a single name, or by Indonesian supporters of independence to attract support from Muslim countries. [6]

Other Languages
Acèh: Soekarno
العربية: أحمد سوكارنو
asturianu: Sukarno
azərbaycanca: Sukarno
বাংলা: সুকর্ণ
Bân-lâm-gú: Sukarno
Basa Banyumasan: Soekarno
беларуская: Сукарна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сукарна
Bikol Central: Sukarno
български: Сукарно
brezhoneg: Sukarno
català: Sukarno
čeština: Sukarno
Cymraeg: Sukarno
dansk: Sukarno
Deutsch: Sukarno
eesti: Sukarno
Ελληνικά: Σουκάρνο
español: Sukarno
Esperanto: Soekarno
euskara: Sukarno
français: Soekarno
Frysk: Soekarno
한국어: 수카르노
Հայերեն: Սուկառնո
हिन्दी: सुकर्णो
hrvatski: Sukarno
Ido: Sukarno
Bahasa Indonesia: Soekarno
íslenska: Sukarno
italiano: Sukarno
Basa Jawa: Soekarno
ქართული: სუკარნო
Latina: Sukarno
latviešu: Sukarno
magyar: Sukarno
македонски: Сукарно
Malagasy: Sukarno
മലയാളം: സുകർണോ
मराठी: सुकर्णो
Bahasa Melayu: Soekarno
Baso Minangkabau: Soekarno
Nederlands: Soekarno
日本語: スカルノ
norsk: Sukarno
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sukarno
polski: Sukarno
português: Sukarno
română: Achmed Sukarno
русский: Сукарно
संस्कृतम्: सुकर्णो
Scots: Sukarno
Simple English: Sukarno
slovenčina: Sukarno
slovenščina: Sukarno
српски / srpski: Сукарно
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sukarno
Basa Sunda: Sukarno
suomi: Sukarno
svenska: Sukarno
Tagalog: Sukarno
தமிழ்: சுகர்ணோ
తెలుగు: సుకర్ణో
Türkçe: Sukarno
українська: Сукарно
Tiếng Việt: Sukarno
Winaray: Sukarno
吴语: 蘇加諾
Yorùbá: Sukarno
粵語: 蘇卡諾
中文: 蘇卡諾