Sugar

Sugars (clockwise from top-left): white refined, unrefined, unprocessed cane, brown

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into fructose and glucose.

Sucrose is used in prepared foods (e.g. cookies and cakes), is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, and may be used by people as a sweetener for foods (e.g. toast and cereal) and beverages (e.g. coffee and tea). Other disaccharides include maltose (from malted grain) and lactose (from milk). Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar.

Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are especially concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes.

The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar, especially refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, and encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.[1]

Etymology

The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा (śarkarā), meaning "ground or candied sugar," originally "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر (sukkar), whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar.[2] Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, and Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article.[2] The earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις (sákkʰaris).

The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ (cakkarā), which is itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा (śarkarā).[3]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suikers
Alemannisch: Zucker
አማርኛ: ስኳር
العربية: سكر
aragonés: Zucre
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܫܟܪ
armãneashti: Zahari
অসমীয়া: চেনী
asturianu: Zucre
Avañe'ẽ: Eiratã
azərbaycanca: Şəkər
تۆرکجه: شکر
বাংলা: চিনি
Bân-lâm-gú: Thn̂g
башҡортса: Шәкәр
беларуская: Цукар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цукар
भोजपुरी: चीनी
български: Захар
Boarisch: Zugga
bosanski: Šećer
brezhoneg: Sukr
català: Sucre
Чӑвашла: Сахăр
čeština: Cukr
chiShona: Shuga
Cymraeg: Siwgr
dansk: Sukker
Deutsch: Zucker
Diné bizaad: Áshįįh łikan
eesti: Suhkrud
Ελληνικά: Ζάχαρη
español: Azúcar
Esperanto: Sukero
euskara: Azukre
فارسی: شکر
français: Sucre
Frysk: Sûker
Gaeilge: Siúcra
Gàidhlig: Siùcar
galego: Azucre
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thòng
한국어: 설탕
հայերեն: Շաքար
हिन्दी: शर्करा
hrvatski: Šećeri
Ido: Sukro
Ilokano: Asukar
Bahasa Indonesia: Gula
interlingua: Sucro
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓱᑲᒃ
Iñupiak: Avu
íslenska: Matarsykur
עברית: סוכר
Basa Jawa: Gula
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಕ್ಕರೆ
ქართული: შაქარი
қазақша: Қант
Kinyarwanda: Isukari
Kiswahili: Sukari
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sik (materyo)
kurdî: Şekir
Кыргызча: Кант
Ladino: Asukar
latviešu: Cukurs
lietuvių: Cukrus
Limburgs: Sókker
lingála: Sukáli
Lingua Franca Nova: Zucar
la .lojban.: sakta
lumbaart: Zuqer
magyar: Cukor
मैथिली: चिनी
македонски: Шеќер
മലയാളം: പഞ്ചസാര
مصرى: سكر
Bahasa Melayu: Gula
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tòng
мокшень: Захар
монгол: Элсэн чихэр
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သကြား
Nederlands: Tafelsuiker
नेपाली: चिनी
नेपाल भाषा: चिनी
日本語: 砂糖
нохчийн: Шекар
norsk: Sukker
norsk nynorsk: Sukker
Nouormand: Chucre
occitan: Sucre
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚିନି
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qand
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ੱਕਰ
پنجابی: شکر
پښتو: بوره
português: Açúcar
română: Zahăr
Runa Simi: Asukar
русский: Сахар
саха тыла: Саахар
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱪᱤᱱᱤ
संस्कृतम्: शर्करा
Scots: Succar
shqip: Sheqeri
sicilianu: Zùccaru
සිංහල: සීනි
Simple English: Sugar
سنڌي: کنڊ
slovenčina: Cukor (sladidlo)
slovenščina: Sladkor
Soomaaliga: Sonkor
کوردی: شەکر
српски / srpski: Шећер
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Šećer
Basa Sunda: Gula
suomi: Sokerit
svenska: Socker
Tagalog: Asukal
தமிழ்: சீனி
татарча/tatarça: Шикәр
తెలుగు: చక్కెర
тоҷикӣ: Қанд
Tsetsêhestâhese: Vé'keemahpe
Türkçe: Şeker
українська: Цукор
اردو: شکّر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شېكەر
vèneto: Sùcaro
vepsän kel’: Sahar (produkt)
Tiếng Việt: Đường thực phẩm
walon: Souke
Winaray: Asukar
吴语: 食糖
ייִדיש: צוקער
粵語:
žemaitėška: Sokros
中文: 食糖