Suffering

Tragic mask on the façade of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, Sweden.

Suffering, or pain in a broad sense,[1] may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.[2] Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena. The opposite of suffering is pleasure or happiness.

Suffering is often categorized as physical[3] or mental.[4] It may come in all degrees of intensity, from mild to intolerable. Factors of duration and frequency of occurrence usually compound that of intensity. Attitudes toward suffering may vary widely, in the sufferer or other people, according to how much it is regarded as avoidable or unavoidable, useful or useless, deserved or undeserved.

Suffering occurs in the lives of sentient beings in numerous manners, often dramatically. As a result, many fields of human activity are concerned with some aspects of suffering. These aspects may include the nature of suffering, its processes, its origin and causes, its meaning and significance, its related personal, social, and cultural behaviors, its remedies, management, and uses.

Terminology

The word suffering is sometimes used in the narrow sense of physical pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet it refers to pain in the broad sense, i.e. to any unpleasant feeling, emotion or sensation. The word pain usually refers to physical pain, but it is also a common synonym of suffering. The words pain and suffering are often used both together in different ways. For instance, they may be used as interchangeable synonyms. Or they may be used in 'contradistinction' to one another, as in "pain is physical, suffering is mental", or "pain is inevitable, suffering is optional". Or they may be used to define each other, as in "pain is physical suffering", or "suffering is severe physical or mental pain".

Qualifiers, such as physical, mental, emotional, and psychological, are often used to refer to certain types of pain or suffering. In particular, mental pain (or suffering) may be used in relationship with physical pain (or suffering) for distinguishing between two wide categories of pain or suffering. A first caveat concerning such a distinction is that it uses physical pain in a sense that normally includes not only the 'typical sensory experience of physical pain' but also other unpleasant bodily experiences including air hunger, hunger, vestibular suffering, nausea, sleep deprivation, and itching. A second caveat is that the terms physical or mental should not be taken too literally: physical pain or suffering, as a matter of fact, happens through conscious minds and involves emotional aspects, while mental pain or suffering happens through physical brains and, being an emotion, involves important physiological aspects.

The word unpleasantness, which some people use as a synonym of suffering or pain in the broad sense, may be used to refer to the basic affective dimension of pain (its suffering aspect), usually in contrast with the sensory dimension, as for instance in this sentence: "Pain-unpleasantness is often, though not always, closely linked to both the intensity and unique qualities of the painful sensation."[5] Other current words that have a definition with some similarity to suffering include distress, unhappiness, misery, affliction, woe, ill, discomfort, displeasure, disagreeableness.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Leid
العربية: معاناة
asturianu: Sufrimientu
български: Страдание
Boarisch: Load
català: Patiment
dansk: Lidelse
Deutsch: Leid
español: Sufrimiento
Esperanto: Sufero
فارسی: رنج
français: Souffrance
galego: Sufrimento
한국어: 고통 (감정)
हिन्दी: पीड़ा
Ido: Sufro
Bahasa Indonesia: Penderitaan
italiano: Sofferenza
עברית: סבל
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವೇದನೆ
Кыргызча: Азап чегүү
lietuvių: Kančia
magyar: Szenvedés
മലയാളം: വേദന
Bahasa Melayu: Penderitaan
Nederlands: Lijden
日本語: 苦しみ
norsk: Lidelse
polski: Cierpienie
português: Sofrimento
русский: Страдание
sicilianu: Patimentu
Simple English: Suffering
slovenčina: Utrpenie
کوردی: ئازار
suomi: Kärsimys
svenska: Lidande
Türkçe: Azap
українська: Страждання
中文: 痛苦