Sucrose

Sucrose
Skeletal formula of sucrose
Ball-and-stick model of sucrose
3d animation of sucrose
Names
IUPAC name
β-D-Fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside
Systematic IUPAC name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
Other names
  • Sugar;
  • Saccharose;
  • α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside;
  • β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside;
  • β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside;
  • α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside;
  • Dodecacarbon monodecahydrate;
  • ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard100.000.304
EC Number200-334-9
RTECS numberWN6500000
UNII
Properties[1]
C12H22O11
Molar mass342.30 g/mol
Appearancewhite solid
Density1.587 g/cm3, solid
Melting pointNone; decomposes at 186 °C (367 °F; 459 K)
~200 g/dL (25 °C) (see table below for other temperatures)
log P−3.76
Structure
Monoclinic
P21
Thermochemistry
1,349.6 kcal/mol (5,647 kJ/mol)[2] (Higher heating value)
Hazards
Safety data sheetICSC 1507
NFPA 704
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
29700 mg/kg (oral, rat)[4]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)[3]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)[3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[3]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Lactose
Maltose
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Sucrose is common sugar. It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants, from which table sugar is refined. It has the molecular formula C12H22O11.

For human consumption, sucrose is extracted, and refined, from either sugar cane or sugar beet. Sugar mills are located where sugarcane is grown to crush the cane and produce raw sugar which is shipped around the world for refining into pure sucrose. Some sugar mills also process the raw sugar into pure sucrose. Sugar beet factories are located in colder climates where the beet is grown, and process the beets directly into refined sugar. The sugar refining process involves washing the raw sugar crystals before dissolving them into a sugar syrup which is filtered and then passed over carbon to remove any residual colour. The sugar syrup, by now clear, is then concentrated by boiling under a vacuum and crystallized as the final purification process to produce crystals of pure sucrose. These crystals are clear, odourless, and have a sweet taste. En masse, the crystals appear white.

Sugar is often an added ingredient in food production and food recipes. About 185 million tonnes of sugar were produced worldwide in 2017.[5]

Etymology

The word sucrose was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller[6] from the French sucre ("sugar") and the generic chemical suffix for sugars -ose. The abbreviated term Suc is often used for sucrose in scientific literature.

The name saccharose was coined in 1860 by the French chemist Marcellin Berthelot.[7] Saccharose is an obsolete name for sugars in general, especially sucrose.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suiker
العربية: سكروز
asturianu: Sacarosa
azərbaycanca: Saxaroza
تۆرکجه: ساکاروز
Bân-lâm-gú: Chià-thn̂g
беларуская: Цукроза
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цукроза
български: Захароза
bosanski: Saharoza
català: Sacarosa
čeština: Sacharóza
Cymraeg: Swcros
dansk: Sukrose
Deutsch: Saccharose
eesti: Sahharoos
español: Sacarosa
Esperanto: Sakarozo
euskara: Sakarosa
فارسی: ساکارز
français: Saccharose
Frysk: Sacharoaze
Gaeilge: Siúcrós
galego: Sacarosa
ГӀалгӀай: Шекар
한국어: 수크로스
հայերեն: Սախարոզ
hrvatski: Saharoza
Bahasa Indonesia: Sukrosa
íslenska: Súkrósi
italiano: Saccarosio
עברית: סוכרוז
Jawa: Sukrosa
ქართული: საქაროზა
қазақша: Сахароза
kurdî: Sakaroz
Кыргызча: Сахароза
Latina: Saccharosum
latviešu: Saharoze
Lëtzebuergesch: Saccharos
lietuvių: Sacharozė
magyar: Szacharóz
македонски: Сахароза
മലയാളം: സുക്രോസ്
مصرى: سوكروز
Bahasa Melayu: Sukrosa
Nederlands: Sacharose
日本語: スクロース
Nordfriisk: Saccharoos
norsk: Rørsukker
norsk nynorsk: Sukrose
occitan: Sacaròsa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Saharoza
polski: Sacharoza
português: Sacarose
română: Zaharoză
русский: Сахароза
Scots: Sucrose
shqip: Sakaroza
සිංහල: සුක්රෝස්
Simple English: Sucrose
slovenčina: Sacharóza
slovenščina: Saharoza
српски / srpski: Сахароза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saharoza
Basa Sunda: Sukrosa
suomi: Sakkaroosi
svenska: Sackaros
తెలుగు: సుక్రోజ్
Türkçe: Sakkaroz
українська: Сахароза
اردو: شکر
Tiếng Việt: Saccarose
粵語: 蔗醣
中文: 蔗糖