Strasbourg

Strasbourg
Prefecture and commune
Strasbourg Railway Station at Night, Alsace, France - Diliff.jpg
Strasbourg Cathedral.jpg
Absolute ponts couverts 02.jpg
Strasbourg Palais Rohan depuis le quai des Bateliers.jpg
Absolute Petite France 02.jpg
Straßburger Kaiserpalast (heute Palais du Rhin).jpg
Strasbourg-Hôtel Brion (2).jpg
European Parliament Strasbourg Hemicycle - Diliff.jpg
Strasbourg seen from Esca Tower in 2014.jpg
Flag of Strasbourg
Flag
Coat of arms of Strasbourg
Coat of arms
Strasbourg is located in France
Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Location within Grand Est region
Strasbourg is located in Grand Est
Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Coordinates: 48°35′N 7°45′E / 48°35′N 7°45′E / 48.58; 7.75
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
BlasonAlsace.svg
Part of the series on
Alsace
Flag of Alsace (historical).svg
Rot un Wiss, traditional flag of Alsace

Strasbourg (ɡ/, French: [stʁazbuʁ, stʁasbuʁ]; Alsatian: Strossburi [ˈʃd̥ʁɔːsb̥uʁi]; German: Straßburg [ˈʃtʁaːsbʊɐ̯k]) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg (Greater Strasbourg) and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 484,157 inhabitants.[2] Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013 (not counting the section across the border in Germany), making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014.[5]

Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union (alongside Brussels and Luxembourg), as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe (with its European Court of Human Rights, its European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and its European Audiovisual Observatory) and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is also the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.[6]

Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île (Grand Island), was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries, especially through the University of Strasbourg, currently the second largest in France, and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture. It is also home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque.[7]

Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, and river transportation. The port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany.[8]

Etymology and names

Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati (in the nominative, Argantorate in the locative), a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate (with Gaulish locative ending, as appearing on the first Roman milestones in the 1st century CE), and then as Argentoratum (with regular Latin nominative ending, in later Latin texts). That Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth (see ringfort), and arganto(n)- (cognate to Latin argentum, which gave modern French argent), the Gaulish word for silver, but also any precious metal, particularly gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.[9]

After the 5th century, the city became known by a completely different name Gallicized as Strasbourg (Lower Alsatian: Strossburi, [ˈʃd̥rɔːsb̥uri]; German: Straßburg, [ˈʃtʁaːsbʊɐ̯k]). That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town (at the crossing) of roads". The modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata ("paved road"), while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz ("hill fort, fortress").

Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood, then taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant" ("to the city of Argentoratum, which they now call Strateburgus"), where he was exiled.[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Straatsburg
Alemannisch: Straßburg
አማርኛ: ስትራዝቡርግ
Ænglisc: Strǣtburg
العربية: ستراسبورغ
armãneashti: Strasbourg
arpetan: Strasbôrg
asturianu: Estrasburgu
azərbaycanca: Strasburq
تۆرکجه: استراسبورگ
Bân-lâm-gú: Strasbourg
беларуская: Страсбур
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Страсбург
български: Страсбург
Boarisch: Strossburg
bosanski: Strasbourg
brezhoneg: Straßburg
català: Estrasburg
Чӑвашла: Страсбург
Cebuano: Strasbourg
čeština: Štrasburk
corsu: Strasburgu
Cymraeg: Strasbwrg
dansk: Strasbourg
Deutsch: Straßburg
dolnoserbski: Strasbourg
eesti: Strasbourg
Ελληνικά: Στρασβούργο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Straśbûrg
español: Estrasburgo
Esperanto: Strasburgo
estremeñu: Estrasburgu
euskara: Estrasburgo
français: Strasbourg
Gaeilge: Strasbourg
galego: Estrasburgo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Strasbourg
Hausa: Strasbourg
հայերեն: Ստրասբուրգ
hornjoserbsce: Strasbourg
hrvatski: Strasbourg
Bahasa Indonesia: Strasbourg
interlingua: Strasbourg
Interlingue: Strasbourg
íslenska: Strassborg
italiano: Strasburgo
עברית: שטרסבורג
Basa Jawa: Strasbourg
kalaallisut: Strasbourg
ქართული: სტრასბური
kaszëbsczi: Sztrasbùrg
kernowek: Strasbourg
Kiswahili: Strasbourg
Kreyòl ayisyen: Estrasbou
kurdî: Strasbourg
Ladino: Estrasburgo
Latina: Argentoratum
latviešu: Strasbūra
Lëtzebuergesch: Stroossbuerg
lietuvių: Strasbūras
Limburgs: Sjtraasburg
lingála: Strasburg
magyar: Strasbourg
македонски: Стразбур
მარგალური: სტრასბური
مازِرونی: استراسبورگ
Bahasa Melayu: Strasbourg
монгол: Страсбург
Nāhuatl: Strasbourg
Nederlands: Straatsburg
Napulitano: Strasburgo
нохчийн: Страсбург
norsk: Strasbourg
norsk nynorsk: Strasbourg
Nouormand: Estrâbouô
Novial: Strasbourg
occitan: Estrasborg
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Strasburg
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਟਰਾਸਬਰਗ
Pälzisch: Straßburg
پنجابی: شٹراسبرگ
Piemontèis: Strasborgh
Plattdüütsch: Straßborg
polski: Strasburg
Ποντιακά: Στρασβούργο
português: Estrasburgo
română: Strasbourg
Runa Simi: Strasbourg
русский: Страсбург
sardu: Strasbourg
Scots: Strasbourg
Seeltersk: Straasbuurich
shqip: Strasburg
sicilianu: Strasburgu
Simple English: Strasbourg
slovenčina: Štrasburg
slovenščina: Strasbourg
ślůnski: Strasbourg
کوردی: ستراسبورگ
српски / srpski: Стразбур
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Strasbourg
suomi: Strasbourg
svenska: Strasbourg
Tagalog: Strasbourg
Taqbaylit: Strassburg
татарча/tatarça: Страсбург
Türkçe: Strazburg
українська: Страсбург
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Strasburg
vèneto: Strasburgo
vepsän kel’: Strasburg
Tiếng Việt: Strasbourg
Volapük: Strasbourg
West-Vlams: Stroatsburg
Winaray: Strasbourg
ייִדיש: שטראסבורג