|Synonyms||Heterotropia, crossed eyes, squint|
|Strabismus results in the eyes not aiming at the same point in space. Shown here is a case of the |
|Causes||Muscle dysfunction, |
|Observing light reflected from the |
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye which is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be present occasionally or constantly. If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in
Strabismus can occur due to muscle dysfunction,
Treatment depends on the type of strabismus and the underlying cause. This may include the use of
When observing a person with strabismus, the misalignment of the eyes may be quite apparent. A patient with a constant eye turn of significant magnitude is very easy to notice. However, a small magnitude or intermittent strabismus can easily be missed upon casual observation. In any case, an
Symptoms of strabismus include
People of all ages who have noticeable strabismus may experience psychosocial difficulties. Attention has also been drawn to potential socioeconomic impact resulting from cases of detectable strabismus. A socioeconomic consideration exists as well in the context of decisions regarding strabismus treatment, including efforts to re-establish binocular vision and the possibility of
One study has shown that strabismic children commonly exhibit behaviors marked by higher degrees of inhibition, anxiety, and emotional distress, often leading to outright emotional disorders. These disorders are often related to a negative perception of the child by peers. This is due not only to an altered aesthetic appearance, but also because of the inherent symbolic nature of the
Children with strabismus, particularly those with
Investigations have highlighted the impact that strabismus may typically have on quality of life. Studies in which subjects were shown images of strabismic and non-strabismic persons showed a strong negative bias towards those visibly displaying the condition, clearly demonstrating the potential for future
Adult and child observers perceived a right heterotropia as more disturbing than a left heterotropia, and child observers perceived an esotropia as "worse" than an exotropia. Successful surgical correction of strabismus—for adult patients as well as children—has been shown to have a significantly positive effect on psychological well-being.
Very little research exists regarding
No studies have evaluated whether psychosocial interventions have had any benefits on individuals undergoing strabismus surgery.