Storm surge

A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges. It is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides.

The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, and a low-pressure-induced dome of water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center.

Historic storm surges

Elements of a storm tide at high tide
Total destruction of the Bolivar Peninsula (Texas) by Hurricane Ike's storm surge in 2008

The deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the Bay of Bengal. The low-lying coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to surges caused by tropical cyclones. [1] The deadliest storm surge in the twenty-first century was caused by the Cyclone Nargis, which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May 2008. The next deadliest in this century was caused by the Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which killed more than 6,000 people in the central Philippines in 2013 [2] [3] [4] and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD). [5]

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States. [6]

The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899 Cyclone Mahina, estimated at almost 44 ft (13 metres) at Bathurst Bay, Australia, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this likely was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography. [7] In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft (8 metres) in southern Mississippi, with a storm surge height of 27.8 ft (8.5 m) in Pass Christian. [8] [9] Another record storm surge occurred in this same area from Hurricane Camille in 1969, with a storm tide of 24.6 ft (7.5 m), also at Pass Christian. [10] A storm surge of 14 ft (4.2 m) occurred in New York City during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.

Other Languages
العربية: عرام العواصف
dansk: Stormflod
Deutsch: Sturmflut
فارسی: خیزآب
français: Onde de tempête
한국어: 폭풍 해일
íslenska: Áhlaðandi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Onn tanpèt
magyar: Vihardagály
Nederlands: Stormvloed
日本語: 高潮
norsk: Stormflo
norsk nynorsk: Stormflod
Plattdüütsch: Stormfloot
Simple English: Storm surge
svenska: Stormflod
українська: Штормовий приплив
Winaray: Dulok
中文: 风暴潮