Stage (stratigraphy)

Units in geochronology and stratigraphy[1]
Segments of rock (strata) in chronostratigraphyTime spans in geochronologyNotes to
geochronological units
EonothemEon4 total, half a billion years or more
ErathemEra10 defined, several hundred million years
SystemPeriod22 defined, tens to ~one hundred million years
SeriesEpoch34 defined, tens of millions of years
StageAge99 defined, millions of years
ChronozoneChronsubdivision of an age, not used by the ICS timescale

In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition. A given stage of rock and the corresponding age of time will by convention have the same name, and the same boundaries.

Rock series are divided into stages, just as geological epochs are divided into ages. Stages can be divided into smaller stratigraphic units called chronozones. (See chart at right for full terminology hierarchy.) Stages may also be divided into substages or indeed grouped as superstages.[2]

The term faunal stage is sometimes used, referring to the fact that the same fauna (animals) are found throughout the layer (by definition).

Definition

Stages are primarily defined by a consistent set of fossils (biostratigraphy) or a consistent magnetic polarity (see paleomagnetism) in the rock. Usually one or more index fossils that are common, found worldwide, easily recognized, and limited to a single, or at most a few, stages are used to define the stage's bottom.

Thus, for example in the local North American subdivision, a paleontologist finding fragments of the trilobite Olenellus would identify the beds as being from the Waucoban Stage whereas fragments of a later trilobite such as Elrathia would identify the stage as Albertan.

Stages were important in the 19th and early 20th centuries as they were the major tool available for dating and correlating rock units prior to the development of seismology and radioactive dating in the second half of the 20th Century. Microscopic analysis of the rock (petrology) is also sometimes useful in confirming that a given segment of rock is from a particular age.

Originally, faunal stages were only defined regionally; however as additional stratigraphic and geochonologic tools, were developed, stages were defined over broader and broader areas. More recently, the adjective "faunal" has been dropped as regional and global correlations of rock sequences have become relatively certain and there is less need for faunal labels to define the age of formations. A tendency developed to use European and, to a lesser extent, Asian, stage names for the same time period worldwide, even though the faunas in other regions often had little in common with the stage as originally defined.

Other Languages
беларуская: Геалагічны ярус
eesti: Lade
Ελληνικά: Φάση πανίδας
Kreyòl ayisyen: Etaj (jewoloji)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yarus
Simple English: Stage (geology)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Faunalni stadij
українська: Геологічний ярус
Tiếng Việt: Bậc (địa tầng)