Species

LifeDomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. A genus contains one or more species. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.

In biology, a species (z/ (About this soundlisten)) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

All species (except viruses) are given a two-part name, a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature, also sometimes in zoological nomenclature). For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa.

None of these are entirely satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and clearly distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another.

Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection. That understanding was greatly extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures. Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer; new species can arise rapidly through hybridisation and polyploidy; and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, and can be treated as quasispecies.

Definition

Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was later formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or even impossible to test.[1][2] Later biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others.[3] Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts,[4] and the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26.[1] Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: (1) agamospecies for asexual organisms (2) biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms (3) ecospecies based on ecological niches (4) evolutionary species based on lineage (5) genetic species based on gene pool (6) morphospecies based on form or phenotype and (7) taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.[5]

Typological or morphological species

All adult Eurasian blue tits share the same coloration, unmistakably identifying the morphospecies.[6]

A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties (a type), so that even pre-literate people often recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists.[7][8] The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens (such as longer or shorter tails) would differentiate the species. This method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not necessarily different species (e.g. a four-winged Drosophila born to a two-winged mother is not a different species). Species named in this manner are called morphospecies.[9][10]

In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms.[11] It differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits.[12]

Recognition and cohesion species

A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.[13][14] Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms; no matter whether populations can hybridize successfully, they are still distinct cohesion species if the amount of hybridization is insufficient to completely mix their respective gene pools.[15] A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species.[16]

Genetic similarity and barcode species

A region of the gene for the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme is used to distinguish species in the Barcode of Life Data Systems database.

In microbiology, genes can move freely even between distantly related bacteria, possibly extending to the whole bacterial domain. As a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not.[17] This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%.[18]

DNA-DNA hybridisation is outdated, and results have sometimes led to misleading conclusions about species, as with the pomarine and great skua.[19][20] Modern approaches compare sequence similarity using computational methods.[21]

DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to distinguish species suitable even for non-specialists to use.[22] The so-called barcode is a region of mitochondrial DNA within the gene for cytochrome c oxidase. A database, Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) contains DNA barcode sequences from over 190,000 species.[23][24] However, scientists such as Rob DeSalle have expressed concern that classical taxonomy and DNA barcoding, which they consider a misnomer, need to be reconciled, as they delimit species differently.[25] Genetic introgression mediated by endosymbionts and other vectors can further make barcodes ineffective in the identification of species.[26]

Phylogenetic, cladistic, or evolutionary species

The cladistic or phylogenetic species concept is that a species is the smallest lineage which is distinguished by a unique set of either genetic or morphological traits. No claim is made about reproductive isolation, making the concept useful also in palaeontology where only fossil evidence is available.

A phylogenetic or cladistic species is an evolutionarily divergent lineage, one that has maintained its hereditary integrity through time and space.[27][28][29] A cladistic species is the smallest group of populations that can be distinguished by a unique set of morphological or genetic traits. Molecular markers may be used to determine genetic similarities in the nuclear or mitochondrial DNA of various species.[28][30][31] For example, in a study done on fungi, studying the nucleotide characters using cladistic species produced the most accurate results in recognising the numerous fungi species of all the concepts studied.[31][32] Versions of the Phylogenetic Species Concept may emphasize monophyly or diagnosability.[33]

Unlike the Biological Species Concept, a cladistic species does not rely on reproductive isolation, so it is independent of processes that are integral in other concepts.[30] It works for asexual lineages, and can detect recent divergences, which the Morphological Species Concept cannot.[28][31] However, it does not work in every situation, and may require more than one polymorphic locus to give an accurate result.[31] The concept may lead to splitting of existing species, for example of Bovidae, into many new ones.[34][35][36]

An evolutionary species, suggested by George Gaylord Simpson in 1951, is "an entity composed of organisms which maintains its identity from other such entities through time and over space, and which has its own independent evolutionary fate and historical tendencies".[4][37] This differs from the biological species concept in embodying persistence over time. Wiley and Mayden state that they see the evolutionary species concept as "identical" to Willi Hennig's species-as-lineages concept, and assert that the biological species concept, "the several versions" of the phylogenetic species concept, and the idea that species are of the same kind as higher taxa are not suitable for biodiversity studies (with the intention of estimating the number of species accurately). They further suggest that the concept works for both asexual and sexually-reproducing species.[38]

Ecological species

An ecological species is a set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources, called a niche, in the environment. According to this concept, populations form the discrete phenetic clusters that we recognise as species because the ecological and evolutionary processes controlling how resources are divided up tend to produce those clusters.[39]

Genetic species

A genetic species as defined by Robert Baker and Robert Bradley is a set of genetically isolated interbreeding populations. This is similar to Mayr's Biological Species Concept, but stresses genetic rather than reproductive isolation.[40] In the 21st century, a genetic species can be established by comparing DNA sequences, but other methods were available earlier, such as comparing karyotypes (sets of chromosomes) and allozymes (enzyme variants).[41]

Evolutionarily significant unit

An evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) or "wildlife species"[42] is a population of organisms considered distinct for purposes of conservation.[43]

Chronospecies

A chronospecies is defined in a single lineage (solid line) whose morphology changes with time. At some point, palaeontologists judge that enough change has occurred that two species (A and B), separated in time and anatomy, once existed.

In palaeontology, with only comparative anatomy (morphology) from fossils as evidence, the concept of a chronospecies can be applied. During anagenesis (evolution, not necessarily involving branching), palaeontologists seek to identify a sequence of species, each one derived from the phyletically extinct one before through continuous, slow and more or less uniform change. In such a time sequence, palaeontologists assess how much change is required for a morphologically distinct form to be considered a different species from its ancestors.[44][45][46][47]

Viral quasispecies

Viruses have enormous populations, are doubtfully living since they consist of little more than a string of DNA or RNA in a protein coat, and mutate rapidly. All of these factors make conventional species concepts largely inapplicable.[48] A viral quasispecies is a group of genotypes related by similar mutations, competing within a highly mutagenic environment, and hence governed by a mutation–selection balance. It is predicted that a viral quasispecies at a low but evolutionarily neutral and highly connected (that is, flat) region in the fitness landscape will outcompete a quasispecies located at a higher but narrower fitness peak in which the surrounding mutants are unfit, "the quasispecies effect" or the "survival of the flattest". There is no suggestion that a viral quasispecies resembles a traditional biological species.[49][50][51]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Spesie
Alemannisch: Art (Biologie)
العربية: نوع (تصنيف)
aragonés: Especie
asturianu: Especie
Avañe'ẽ: Juehegua
azərbaycanca: Bioloji növ
বাংলা: প্রজাতি
башҡортса: Төр (биология)
беларуская: Біялагічны від
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Від (біялёгія)
भोजपुरी: प्रजाति
български: Вид (биология)
Boarisch: Oart (Biologie)
brezhoneg: Spesad
català: Espècie
Чӑвашла: Тĕс (биологи)
čeština: Druh
Cymraeg: Rhywogaeth
dansk: Art
español: Especie
Esperanto: Specio
euskara: Espezie
Fiji Hindi: Species
français: Espèce
Frysk: Soarte
Gaeilge: Speiceas
galego: Especie
ГӀалгӀай: Биологен кеп
한국어: 종 (생물학)
hornjoserbsce: Družina (biologija)
hrvatski: Vrsta
Ilokano: Sebbangan
Bahasa Indonesia: Spesies
interlingua: Specie
italiano: Specie
Jawa: Spésies
Kapampangan: Species
къарачай-малкъар: Биология тюрлю
ქართული: სახეობა
қазақша: Түр
Kiswahili: Spishi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Espès
kurdî: Cure
Кыргызча: Түр
latviešu: Suga
Lëtzebuergesch: Aart
lietuvių: Rūšis
lumbaart: Spéce
magyar: Faj
македонски: Вид (биологија)
മലയാളം: സ്പീഷീസ്
Malti: Speċi
მარგალური: გვარობა
Bahasa Melayu: Spesies
монгол: Зүйл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မျိုးစိတ်
Nederlands: Soort
नेपाल भाषा: प्रजाति
日本語: 種 (分類学)
Napulitano: Specia
Nordfriisk: Slach
norsk: Art
norsk nynorsk: Art
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tur (biologiya)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪ੍ਰਜਾਤੀ
پنجابی: سپیشیز
Patois: Spiishi
Piemontèis: Spece
Plattdüütsch: Oort (Biologie)
português: Espécie
Runa Simi: Rikch'aq
русиньскый: Вид (біолоґія)
Scots: Species
shqip: Specia
Simple English: Species
slovenčina: Druh (taxonómia)
slovenščina: Vrsta (biologija)
کوردی: جۆرە
српски / srpski: Врста (биологија)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vrsta
Basa Sunda: Spésiés
suomi: Laji
svenska: Art
Tagalog: Espesye
Taqbaylit: Talmest
татарча/tatarça: Төр (биология)
తెలుగు: జాతి
Türkçe: Tür
Türkmençe: Biologik görnüş
українська: Вид
اردو: نوع
vèneto: Spece
Tiếng Việt: Loài
West-Vlams: Sôorte
Winaray: Espesyis
吴语: 物种
ייִדיש: זגאל
粵語: 物種
中文: 物种