Spanish language

Spanish
Castilian
español
castellano
Pronunciation[espaˈɲol], [kasteˈʎano]
RegionSpain, Hispanic America, Equatorial Guinea (see below)
EthnicitySpaniards, Hispanics, and Latinos
Native speakers
480 million (2018)[1]
75 million L2 speakers and speakers with limited capacity (2018)[1]
Early form
Latin (Spanish alphabet)
Spanish Braille
Signed Spanish (Mexico, Spain and presumably elsewhere)
Official status
Official language in



Regulated byAssociation of Spanish Language Academies
(Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies)
Language codes
es
spa
ISO 639-3spa
stan1288[2]
Linguasphere51-AAA-b
Hispanophone global world map language 2.svg
  Spanish as official language
  Unofficial, but spoken by more than 25% of the population
  Unofficial, but spoken by 10-20% of the population
  Unofficial, but spoken by 5-9% of the population
  Spanish-based creole languages spoken
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Spanish (ʃ/ (About this soundlisten); About this soundespañol ) or Castilian[3] (n/ (About this soundlisten), About this soundcastellano ), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is usually considered a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[4][5][6][7][8]

Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century,[9] and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, then capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in the early 16th century, Spanish was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania and the Philippines.[10]

Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin.Ancient Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, where it had a great impact.[11][12]Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.[13][14][15][16] With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin.[13][17][18]It has also been influenced by Basque, Iberian, Celtiberian, Visigothic, and by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages.[19][13].

Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages—French, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, Occitan, and Sardinian—as well as from Nahuatl, Quechua, and other indigenous languages of the Americas.

Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and by many other international organizations.[20]

Estimated number of speakers

It is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.[21] Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language.[22]

Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, and 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million. It is also an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language.[23] Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States.[24] In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home.[25]

According to a 2011 paper by U.S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration. Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Эспаныбзэ
адыгабзэ: Испаныбзэ
Afrikaans: Spaans
Akan: Spanish
Alemannisch: Spanische Sprache
አማርኛ: እስፓንኛ
العربية: لغة إسبانية
armãneashti: Limba ispańolâ
arpetan: Castilyan
অসমীয়া: স্পেনীছ ভাষা
Avañe'ẽ: Karaiñe'ẽ
Aymar aru: Kastilla aru
azərbaycanca: İspan dili
bamanankan: Espankan
Bahasa Banjar: Bahasa spanyol
Bân-lâm-gú: Se-pan-gâ-gí
башҡортса: Испан теле
беларуская: Іспанская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гішпанская мова
भोजपुरी: स्पेनिश भाषा
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Espanyol
български: Испански език
Boarisch: Spanisch
བོད་ཡིག: སེ་པན་སྐད།
bosanski: Španski jezik
brezhoneg: Spagnoleg
català: Castellà
Чӑвашла: Испан чĕлхи
Cebuano: Kinatsila
čeština: Španělština
Chamoru: Españót
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lengua Español
Chi-Chewa: Chispanezi
chiShona: ChiSpanish
Cymraeg: Sbaeneg
davvisámegiella: Spánskkagiella
Deitsch: Schpaanisch
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިސްޕެނިޝް
Diné bizaad: Naakaii bizaad
dolnoserbski: Špańšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Spagnôl
español: Idioma español
Esperanto: Hispana lingvo
estremeñu: Lengua castellana
euskara: Gaztelania
eʋegbe: Spangbe
Fiji Hindi: Spanish bhasa
føroyskt: Spanskt mál
français: Espagnol
Frysk: Spaansk
Gaeilge: An Spáinnis
Gaelg: Spaainish
Gagauz: İspan dili
Gàidhlig: Spàinntis
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиспаной мотт
贛語: 西班牙語
ગુજરાતી: સ્પેનિશ ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sî-pân-ngà-ngî
한국어: 스페인어
հայերեն: Իսպաներեն
hornjoserbsce: Španišćina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: স্প্যানিশ ঠার
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Spanyol
interlingua: Lingua espaniol
Interlingue: Hispan
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᐸᐃᓂᑎᑐᑦ
isiXhosa: IsiSpain
isiZulu: IsiSpeyini
íslenska: Spænska
italiano: Lingua spagnola
עברית: ספרדית
Basa Jawa: Basa Spanyol
kalaallisut: Spanskisut
Kapampangan: Espanyol (amanu)
къарачай-малкъар: Испан тил
ქართული: ესპანური ენა
kaszëbsczi: Szpańsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Испан тілі
kernowek: Spaynek
Kinyarwanda: Icyesipanyole
Kiswahili: Kihispania
Kongo: Kispanya
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang panyòl
Кыргызча: Испан тили
кырык мары: Испани йӹлмӹ
лакку: Спанс маз
لۊری شومالی: زۊن اٛسپانیایی
latviešu: Spāņu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Spuenesch
лезги: Испан чIал
lietuvių: Ispanų kalba
Limburgs: Castiliaans
lingála: Lispanyoli
Lingua Franca Nova: Espaniol (lingua)
Livvinkarjala: Ispanien kieli
la .lojban.: sanbau
македонски: Шпански јазик
Māori: Reo Pāniora
მარგალური: ესპანური ნინა
مازِرونی: ایسپانیولی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Sepanyol
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Spanyol
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Să̤-băng-ngà-ngṳ̄
монгол: Испани хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စပိန်ဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Caxtillahtolli
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Pain
Nederlands: Spaans
Nedersaksies: Spaans
नेपाल भाषा: स्पेनी भाषा
日本語: スペイン語
Napulitano: Lengua spagnuola
Nordfriisk: Spoonsk spriak
Norfuk / Pitkern: Spanish
norsk: Spansk
norsk nynorsk: Spansk
Nouormand: Espangnô
Novial: Spanum
occitan: Espanhòu
олык марий: Испан йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ispan tili
Pangasinan: Salitan Espanyol
پنجابی: ہسپانوی
Papiamentu: Spaño
Patois: Panish
Перем Коми: Эспаннёл кыв
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាអេស្ប៉ាញ
Picard: Éspaingnol
Piemontèis: Lenga spagneula
Tok Pisin: Tok Spen
Plattdüütsch: Spaansche Spraak
português: Língua castelhana
Qaraqalpaqsha: İspan tili
qırımtatarca: İspan tili
reo tahiti: Reo Paniora
Ripoarisch: Schpanische Sproch
română: Limba spaniolă
rumantsch: Lingua spagnola
Runa Simi: Kastilla simi
русиньскый: Шпанєльскый язык
саха тыла: Испаан тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'asipaniolo
संस्कृतम्: स्पैनिश भाषा
Sängö: Espanyöl
Seeltersk: Spoanske Sproake
Sesotho: Sespain
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sespan
Setswana: Sespan
sicilianu: Lingua spagnola
Simple English: Spanish language
SiSwati: Sipanishi
slovenčina: Španielčina
slovenščina: Španščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їспанїискъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
Soomaaliga: Af-Isbaanish
Sranantongo: Spanyorotongo
српски / srpski: Шпански језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Španski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Spanyol
svenska: Spanska
tarandíne: Lènga spagnole
татарча/tatarça: Испан теле
Tshivenda: Spanish
Türkçe: İspanyolca
Türkmençe: Ispan dili
Twi: Spanish
тыва дыл: Испан дыл
удмурт: Испан кыл
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨅᨔ ᨔᨄᨎᨚᨒ
українська: Іспанська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىسپان تىلى
Vahcuengh: Vah Sihbanhyaz
vepsän kel’: Ispanijan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Tây Ban Nha
Volapük: Spanyänapük
文言: 西班牙語
West-Vlams: Spoans
Winaray: Kinatsila
Wolof: Wu-ispaañ
吴语: 西班牙语
Xitsonga: Xipaniya
ייִדיש: שפאניש
Yorùbá: Èdè Spéìn
粵語: 西班牙文
Zazaki: İspanyolki
Zeêuws: Spaons
žemaitėška: Ispanu kalba
中文: 西班牙语