The name Suthriganaweorc
 or Suthringa geweorche
 is recorded for the area in the 10th-century
Anglo-Saxon document known as the
 and means "fort of the men of
 or "the
defensive work of the men of Surrey".
 Southwark is recorded in the 1086
Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name means "southern defensive work" and is formed from the
Old English sūþ (south) and weorc (work). The southern location is in reference to the
City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of
London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the
Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current
London Borough of Southwark. The ancient borough of Southwark was also known simply as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from 'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. Southwark was also simultaneously referred to as the
ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City (from 1550 to 1900) and as an
aldermanry until 1978.
For the toponymy of the area's street names see
Street names of Southwark
Museum of London, inscription on a
that mentions 'Londoners' for the first time
Southwark is sited on a previously
marshy area south of the
River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early
burial mounds and ritual activity. The area was originally a series of islands in the
River Thames. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of
Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman
London Bridge. Two
Stane Street and
Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now
Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to 'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a largely featureless soil called the
Dark Earth which probably (although this is contested) represents an urban area abandoned.
Southwark appears to recover only during the time of King
Alfred and his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied. It was probably fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging
City of London to the north. This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King
Sweyn and his son King
Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke
William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the
Norman conquest of England, but Southwark was devastated.
Southwark appears in the
Domesday Book of 1086 as held by several
manors. Its assets were: Bishop
Bayeux held the
monastery (the site of modern
Southwark Cathedral) and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock; the King owned the church (probably
St Olave's) and its tidal stream (St Olave's Dock); the dues of the waterway or mooring place were shared between King
William I and Earl
Godwin; the King also had the toll of the strand; and 'men of Southwark' had the right to 'a haw and its toll'. Southwark's value to the King was
£16. Much of Southwark was originally owned by the church—the greatest reminder of monastic London is
Southwark Cathedral, originally the priory of St Mary Overie.
During the early
Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of
Parliament for the first
commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some time in the 13th century, which was controlled by the City's officers—it was later removed in order to improve traffic to the Bridge, under a separate Trust by Act of Parliament of 1756 as the
Borough Market on the present site. The area was renowned for its inns, especially
The Tabard, from which
Geoffrey Chaucer's pilgrims set off on their journey in
The Canterbury Tales.
Just west of the Bridge was the
Liberty of the Clink manor, which was never controlled by the City, technically held under the
Bishopric of Winchester's nominal authority. This area therefore became the entertainment district for London, and it was also a
red-light area. In 1587, Southwark's first playhouse theatre,
The Rose, opened. The Rose was set up by
Philip Henslowe, and soon became a popular place of entertainment for all classes of Londoners. Both
Christopher Marlowe and
William Shakespeare, two of the finest writers of the Elizabethan age, worked at the Rose.
In 1599 the
Globe Theatre, in which Shakespeare was a shareholder, was erected on the
Bankside in the
Liberty of the Clink. It burned down in 1613, and was rebuilt in 1614, only to be closed by the
Puritans in 1642 and subsequently pulled down not long thereafter. A modern replica called
Shakespeare's Globe, has been built near the original site. Southwark was also a favourite area for entertainment such as
bear-baiting. The impresario in the later Elizabethan period for these entertainments was Shakespeare's colleague
Edward Alleyn, who left many local charitable endowments, most notably
On 26 May 1676, ten years after the
Great Fire of London, a great fire broke out, which continued for 17 hours before houses were blown up to create fire breaks. King
Charles II and his brother,
Duke of York, were involved in the effort.
There was also a famous fair in Southwark which took place near the Church of
St George the Martyr.
William Hogarth depicted this fair in his engraving of Southwark Fair (1733).
Southwark was also the location of several
prisons, including those of the Crown or Prerogative Courts, the
King's Bench prisons, that of the local manors courts e.g.
The Clink, and the Surrey county gaol originally housed at the White Lion Inn (also called informally the Borough Gaol) and eventually at
Horsemonger Lane Gaol.
One other local family is of note, the Harvards.
John Harvard went to the local parish free school of St Saviour's and on to
Cambridge University. He migrated to the
Massachusetts Colony and left his library and the residue of his will to the new college there, named after him as its first benefactor.
Harvard University maintains a link, having paid for a memorial chapel within Southwark Cathedral (his family's parish church), and where its UK-based alumni hold services. John Harvard's mother's house is in Stratford upon Avon.
In 1836 the first railway in the London area was created, the
London and Greenwich Railway, originally terminating at
Spa Road and later extended west to
In 1861, another great fire in Southwark destroyed a large number of buildings between Tooley Street and the Thames, including those around Hays Wharf (later replaced by
Hays Galleria) and blocks to the west almost as far as
St Olave's Church.
The first deep-level underground tube line in London was the
City and South London Railway, now the Bank branch of the
Northern line, opened in 1890, running from
King William Street south through
Stockwell. Southwark, since 1999, is also now served by
Bermondsey and London Bridge stations on the
A map showing the wards of
Southwark Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.
ancient borough of Southwark initially consisted of the
Surrey parishes of
St George the Martyr,
St Margaret and
 St Margaret and St Mary were abolished in 1541 and their former area combined to create
Southwark St Saviour. Around 1555
Southwark St Thomas was split off from St Olave, and in 1733
Southwark St John Horsleydown was also split off.
In 1855 the parishes came into the area of responsibility of the
Metropolitan Board of Works. The St George the Martyr parish was large enough to be governed by a vestry. St John Horsleydown, St Olave and St Thomas were grouped to form the
St Olave District. St Saviour was combined with
Southwark Christchurch (the former liberty of Paris Garden) to form the
St Saviour's District. In 1889 the area became part of the
County of London.
 St Olave and St Thomas were combined as a single parish in 1896.
The local government arrangements were reorganised in 1900 with a
Metropolitan Borough of Southwark created comprising the parishes of Southwark Christchurch, Southwark St Saviours, Southwark St George the Martyr and
Newington. The eastern parishes that had formed the St Olave District instead became part of the
Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey. In 1965 the two boroughs were combined with the
Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell to form the current
London Borough of Southwark.
Relationship with the City of London
Southwark was outside of the control of the City of London and was a haven for criminals and free traders, who would sell goods and conduct trades outside the regulation of the City's
Livery Companies. In 1327 the City obtained control from King
Edward III of the manor next to the south side of London Bridge known as the Town of Southwark (called latterly the
Guildable Manor—i.e., the place of taxes and tolls). The Livery Companies also ensured that they had jurisdiction over the area.
From the Norman period manorial organisation obtained through major lay and ecclesiastic magnates. Southwark still has vestiges of this because of the connection with the City of London. In 1327 the City acquired from Edward III the original
vill of Southwark and this was also described as "the borough". In 1536
Henry VIII acquired the
Bermondsey Priory properties and in 1538 that of the Archbishop. In 1550 these were sold to the City.
After many decades of petitioning, in 1550 Southwark was incorporated into the City of London as the ward of
Bridge Without. However, the Alderman was appointed by the
Court of Aldermen and no Common Councilmen were ever elected. This ward was constituted of the original
Guildable Manor and the properties previously held by the church, under a charter of
Edward VI, latterly called the King's Manor or Great Liberty. These manors are still constituted by the City under a Bailiff and Steward with their Courts Leet and
View of Frankpledge Juries and Officers which still meet—their annual assembly being held in November under the present High Steward (the
Recorder of London). The Ward and Aldermanry were effectively abolished in 1978, by merging it with the Ward of Bridge Within. These manorial courts were preserved under the Administration of Justice Act 1977. Therefore, between 1750 and 1978 Southwark had two persons (the Alderman and the Recorder) who were members of the City's Court of Aldermen and Common Council who were elected neither by the City freemen or by the Southwark electorate but appointed by the Court of Aldermen.