Southern Cone

Southern Cone

Southern cone.png

  Regions included in all forms
  Regions generally included
  Countries that still have a small part of their territory in the Southern Cone
Area5,712,034 kilometres (3,549,293 mi)
Population135,707,204 (July 2010 est.)
Density27.45/km2 (71.1/sq mi)[1]
Countries3, 4, or 5
LanguagesSpanish, Portuguese and Guarani
DemonymSouth American
Largest urban agglomerations1. Brazil São Paulo
2. Argentina Buenos Aires
3. Chile Santiago
4. Brazil Curitiba
5. Brazil Porto Alegre
6. Argentina Córdoba
7. Uruguay Montevideo

The Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, which is the continental area closest to Antarctica (separated by 960 km). In terms of social, economic and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and sometimes part of Southern and Southeastern (São Paulo) Brazil. In its broadest definition, the Southern Cone also includes southern Bolivia and Paraguay (because of the common history and geography).[2]

High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy[citation needed] of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America.[2][3]

Geography and extent

Satellite images of the Southern Cone month by month
The extensive temperated prairies of the Pampas in the center of the Argentina.
A panoramic sight of Aconcagua. Placed in Argentina, this summit - with its almost 7000 meters of altitude - is the highest mountain of the Earth besides the Himalayas, and continues rising.
Landforms in the Monte Desert at Ischigualasto, Argentina. Much of the southern cone is covered by the Arid Diagonal of which Monte Desert is part.
The region of the forests of coniferous and lakes of glacier origin concerning Bariloche.

The climates are mostly temperate, but include humid subtropical, Mediterranean, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold, desert and semi-arid temperate regions. Except for northern regions of Argentina (thermal equator in January), the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region rarely suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter. The Atacama is the driest place on Earth.

One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law. The prairies region of central Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas.

Central Chile has Mediterranean vegetation and climate, grading southward into oceanic climate. The Atacama, Patagonian and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands, croplands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border. In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Average temperatures for some of the largest urban areas of Southern Cone
Location Warmest month April Coldest month October
Buenos Aires[4] 29.9 °C (85.8 °F)
19.6 °C (67.3 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
13.3 °C (55.9 °F)
15.4 °C (59.7 °F)
7.6 °C (45.7 °F)
22.1 °C (71.8 °F)
12.7 °C (54.9 °F)
Santiago de Chile[5] 29.7 °C (85.5 °F)
13.0 °C (55.4 °F)
24.3 °C (75.7 °F)
8.0 °C (46.4 °F)
14.9 °C (58.8 °F)
3.9 °C (39.0 °F)
25.3 °C (77.5 °F)
10.6 °C (51.1 °F)
Porto Alegre 30.2 °C (86.4 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
16.3 °C (61.3 °F)
20.3 °C (68.5 °F)
10.7 °C (51.3 °F)
24.4 °C (75.9 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
Asunción 33.5 °C (92.3 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
28.4 °C (83.1 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
23.2 °C (73.8 °F)
13.1 °C (55.6 °F)
29.2 °C (84.6 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
Montevideo 28.4 °C (83.1 °F)
18.0 °C (64.4 °F)
22.0 °C (71.6 °F)
12.9 °C (55.2 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
7.2 °C (45.0 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Valparaiso 20.8 °C (69.4 °F)
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
9.2 °C (48.6 °F)
16.5 °C (61.7 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Córdoba 29.8 °C (85.6 °F)
17.1 °C (62.8 °F)
24.2 °C (75.6 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
4.4 °C (39.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
Planisphere of moderate latitudes in which the equivalent location of most of the Southern Cone can be observed as if it was in the Northern Hemisphere (over latitudes corresponding to the south end of the United States up to the south end of Alaska).
Other Languages
العربية: مخروط جنوبي
asturianu: Conu Sur
беларуская: Паўднёвы Конус
bosanski: Južna kupa
català: Con Sud
Deutsch: Südkegel
español: Cono Sur
Esperanto: Suda Konuso
euskara: Hego Konoa
français: Cône Sud
한국어: 코노 수르
hrvatski: Južni konus
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerucut Selatan
íslenska: Suðurkeilan
italiano: Cono Sud
Basa Jawa: Corong Kidul
lietuvių: Pietų kampas
Bahasa Melayu: Kerucut Selatan
Nederlands: Zuidkegel
occitan: Còn Sud
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦੱਖਣੀ ਕੋਨ
português: Cone Sul
română: Conul Sudic
русский: Южный конус
Simple English: Southern Cone
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Južna kupa
Türkçe: Güney Konisi
українська: Південний конус
中文: 南錐體