Southern Cone

Southern Cone


  Regions included in all forms
  Regions generally included
  Regions only exceptionally included
Area 5,205,034 kilometres (3,234,258 mi)
Population 135,707,204 (July 2010 est.)
Density 27.45/km2 (71.1/sq mi) [1]
Countries 3, 4, or 5
Dependencies 18
Demonym South American
Languages Spanish, Portuguese, indigenous languages, and many others
1. Brazil São Paulo
2. Argentina Buenos Aires
3. Chile Santiago
4. Brazil Curitiba
5. Brazil Porto Alegre
6. Argentina Córdoba
7. Uruguay Montevideo
8. Brazil Guarulhos

Southern Cone ( Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and south to the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, which is the continental area closest to Antarctica (1000 km). In terms of social and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, part of Southern and Southeastern ( São Paulo) Brazil and sometimes Paraguay. [2]

High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy[ citation needed] of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America. [2] [3]

Geography and extent

Satellite images of the Southern Cone month by month
Landforms in the Monte Desert at Ischigualasto, Argentina. Much of the southern cone is covered by the Arid Diagonal of which Monte Desert is part.

The climates are mostly temperate, but include humid subtropical, Mediterranean, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold, desert and semi-arid temperate regions. Except for northern regions of Argentina ( thermal equator in January), the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region rarely suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter. The Atacama is the driest place on Earth.

One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law. The steppe region of central Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas.

Central Chile has Mediterranean vegetation and climate, grading southward into oceanic climate. The Atacama, Patagonian and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands, croplands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border. In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Average temperatures for some of the largest urban areas of Southern Cone
Location Warmest month April Coldest month October
Buenos Aires [4] 29.9 °C (85.8 °F)
19.6 °C (67.3 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
13.3 °C (55.9 °F)
15.4 °C (59.7 °F)
7.6 °C (45.7 °F)
22.1 °C (71.8 °F)
12.7 °C (54.9 °F)
Santiago de Chile [5] 29.7 °C (85.5 °F)
13.0 °C (55.4 °F)
24.3 °C (75.7 °F)
8.0 °C (46.4 °F)
14.9 °C (58.8 °F)
3.9 °C (39.0 °F)
25.3 °C (77.5 °F)
10.6 °C (51.1 °F)
Porto Alegre 30.2 °C (86.4 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
16.3 °C (61.3 °F)
20.3 °C (68.5 °F)
10.7 °C (51.3 °F)
24.4 °C (75.9 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
Asunción 33.5 °C (92.3 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
28.4 °C (83.1 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
23.2 °C (73.8 °F)
13.1 °C (55.6 °F)
29.2 °C (84.6 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
Montevideo 28.4 °C (83.1 °F)
18.0 °C (64.4 °F)
22.0 °C (71.6 °F)
12.9 °C (55.2 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
7.2 °C (45.0 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Valparaiso 20.8 °C (69.4 °F)
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
9.2 °C (48.6 °F)
16.5 °C (61.7 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Córdoba 29.8 °C (85.6 °F)
17.1 °C (62.8 °F)
24.2 °C (75.6 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
4.4 °C (39.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
Other Languages
العربية: مخروط جنوبي
asturianu: Conu Sur
беларуская: Паўднёвы Конус
bosanski: Južna kupa
català: Con Sud
Deutsch: Südkegel
español: Cono Sur
Esperanto: Suda Konuso
euskara: Hego Konoa
français: Cône Sud
한국어: 코노 수르
hrvatski: Južni konus
Bahasa Indonesia: Kerucut Selatan
íslenska: Suðurkeilan
italiano: Cono Sud
Basa Jawa: Corong Kidul
lietuvių: Pietų kampas
Bahasa Melayu: Kerucut Selatan
Nederlands: Zuidkegel
occitan: Còn Sud
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦੱਖਣੀ ਕੋਨ
português: Cone Sul
română: Conul Sudic
русский: Южный конус
Simple English: Southern Cone
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Južna kupa
Türkçe: Güney Konisi
українська: Південний конус
中文: 南錐體